2016年国民经济和社会发展计划报告(全文)
Full text: Report on China's economic, social development plan (2016)

 
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2016年3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第四次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。[中国网] The fourth session of the 12th National People's Congress opens at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, March 5, 2016. [Photo/China.org.cn]

2016年3月5日,第十二届全国人民代表大会第四次会议在北京人民大会堂开幕。[中国网]
The fourth session of the 12th National People's Congress opens at the Great Hall of the People in Beijing, capital of China, March 5, 2016. [Photo/China.org.cn]

关于2015年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2016年国民经济和社会发展计划草案的报告

Report on the Implementation of the 2015 Plan for National Economic and Social Development and on the 2016 Draft Plan for National Economic and Social Development 

——2016年3月5日在十二届全国人民代表大会第四次会议上

Delivered at the Fourth Session of the Twelfth National People's Congress on March 5, 2016

国家发展和改革委员会

National Development and Reform Commission

各位代表: Fellow Deputies,
受国务院委托,现将2015年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况与2016年国民经济和社会发展计划草案提请十二届全国人大四次会议审议,并请全国政协各位委员提出意见。 The National Development and Reform Commission has been entrusted by the State Council to submit this report on the implementation of the 2015 plan and on the 2016 draft plan for national economic and social development to the Fourth Session of the Twelfth National People' s Congress (NPC) for your deliberation and also for comments from the members of the National Committee of the Chinese People' s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC).
一、2015年国民经济和社会发展计划执行情况 I. Implementation of the 2015 Plan for National Economic and Social Development
去年以来,国际经济环境错综复杂,国内经济下行压力加大,各类风险挑战明显增多。各地区各部门在党中央国务院的正确领导下,坚持稳中求进工作总基调,主动适应经济发展新常态,认真执行十二届全国人大三次会议审议批准的2015年国民经济和社会发展计划,落实全国人大财政经济委员会的审查意见,扎实做好各方面工作,经济运行总体平稳,稳中有进,稳中有好,计划执行情况总体是好的。2015年主要目标任务的完成,标志着“十二五”规划胜利收官,我国站在了更高的发展水平上。 Last year, China faced a complex international economic environment, mounting downward pressure on its economy, and a marked increase in the number of risks and challenges; despite this, we ensured that the overall implementation of the 2015 Plan for National Economic and Social Development was successful. This was as a result of the efforts of all regions and departments which, under the correct leadership of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) and the State Council, followed the general principle of making progress while keeping performance stable, worked to adapt to the new normal in economic development, earnestly implemented the 2015 plan approved at the Third Session of the Twelfth NPC, acted in line with the review of the plan by the NPC' s Financial and Economic Affairs Committee, and worked steadfastly to achieve good results in all respects. Overall, we managed to sustain steady economic development while also ensuring progress and improvement. Major targets and tasks set forth for 2015 were accomplished, marking a successful conclusion to the 12th Five-Year Plan, and helping China's development move to the next level.
(一)进一步完善宏观经济政策,经济保持中高速增长。创新宏观调控思路和方式,在区间调控基础上加强定向调控、相机调控,内需拉动力增强,出口占国际市场份额继续提高。国内生产总值达到67.67万亿元,增长6.9%,实现年度预期目标。 1. We continued to improve our macroeconomic policy and maintained a medium-high rate of growth. We developed new ideas and methods for macro regulation, and on the basis of range-based regulation, we strengthened both targeted and well-timed regulation. Domestic demand became a stronger economic driver, and the international market share of China's exports continued to increase. China's gross domestic product (GDP) reached 67.67 trillion yuan, an increase of 6.9%, meaning the target set at the beginning of the year has been achieved.

一是投资关键作用有效发挥。围绕补短板、调结构,加大有效投资力度。把重大工程建设作为促进投资增长的“牛鼻子”,优化中央预算内投资结构,设立和投放专项建设基金,多措并举鼓励和吸引社会投资,11大类重大投资工程包建设有效推进。全社会固定资产投资增长9.8%,民间投资占固定资产投资(不含农户)比重提高到64.2%。

1) Investment played the key role in driving economic growth. Strengthening points of weakness and adjusting the economic structure were our primary focus when increasing the level of effective investment. To utilize the construction of major projects to stimulate investment growth, we improved the structure of investment from the central government budget, established and earmarked capital for special development funds, and adopted a wide range of measures to encourage and attract nongovernmental investment. As a result, considerable progress was achieved in the construction of major projects in 11 categories. Total fixed-asset investment for the year rose by 9.8%, of which 64.2% came from nongovernmental sources (excluding rural households).

专栏1:11大类重大投资工程包。

Box 1: 11 Categories of Major Projects for Investment
二是消费潜力继续释放。扎实推进6大领域消费工程,实现投资3万亿元,带动相关消费2.8万亿元。旅游、网购、新能源汽车等消费新增长点不断培育壮大,社会消费品零售总额增长10.7%。 2) Consumption potential was further exploited. Steady progress was achieved in six major projects aimed at stimulating consumption, and the three trillion yuan investment in these six projects contributed to consumption worth 2.8 trillion yuan. Tourism, online shopping, new-energy vehicles, and other new growth areas in consumer spending continued to grow, and total retail sales of consumer goods for the year rose by 10.7%.

专栏2:6大领域消费工程。

Box 2: Six Major Projects to Stimulate Consumption
三是经济结构进一步优化。消费超投资、三产超二产的特征更加明显,消费对经济增长的贡献率达到66.4%;第三产业增加值占国内生产总值的比重首次过半,达到50.5%。城乡区域协调协同性增强,新型城镇化积极推进,常住人口城镇化率56.1%。 3) The economic structure was further improved. In terms of the contribution to economic growth, consumption far outweighed investment, making a 66.4% contribution, while the tertiary industry accounted for far more than the secondary industry. The value-added of the tertiary industry accounted for over half of GDP for the first time, reaching 50.5%. Development between urban and rural areas and between regions became more balanced and coordinated. The New Urbanization saw positive progress, with permanent urban residents now accounting for 56.1% of the population.
四是就业形势总体稳定。新一轮促进就业创业措施出台,创业创新对就业的带动作用增强。城镇新增就业1312万人,年末城镇登记失业率4.05%。 4) The overall employment situation remained stable. New measures to increase employment and business start-ups were introduced, and entrepreneurship and innovation began to make a bigger contribution to increasing employment. An additional 13.12 million urban jobs were created throughout the year. The registered urban unemployment rate stood at 4.05% at the end of 2015.
五是价格总水平温和上涨。居民消费价格上涨1.4%。价格收费监管和反垄断执法深入开展,依法查处价格违法案件3.42万件,实施经济制裁104.77亿元,减轻企业负担约89亿元。 5) Overall prices rose moderately. The consumer price index (CPI) rose by 1.4%. We intensified oversight in relation to prices and charges and increased law enforcement to combat monopolistic pricing. In total, we investigated and dealt with 34,200 cases of pricing violations and imposed economic penalties totaling 10.477 billion yuan in accordance with the law. Our work in this area also helped reduce the burden on enterprises by about 8.9 billion yuan.
(二)改革开放向纵深推进,市场活力和社会创造力不断释放。简政放权、放管结合、优化服务深入推进,重要领域改革取得积极进展,开放型经济新体制加快构建。 2. We deepened reform and opening up and stimulated market vitality and social creativity. We continued to streamline administration, delegate more powers, improving regulation, and provide better services. Progress was made in reforms in key areas, and the building of new systems for an open economy was accelerated.
一是行政审批制度改革不断深化。取消和下放311项行政审批事项,全部取消非行政许可审批,取消214项中央指定地方实施的行政审批事项,取消123项职业资格许可和认定事项。取消国务院部门行政审批中70%的中介服务事项。取消属于企业经营自主权范围的18项核准前置手续。简政放权三张清单、四大平台初步建立。“三证合一”、“一照一码”全面实施,新登记注册企业443.9万户,增长21.6%。不动产登记暂行条例正式实施。 1) The reform of the government review and approval system continued. We cancelled the requirement for or delegated the power of government review on 311 items, cancelled all non-administrative review, exempted 214 items from review and approval conducted by local governments on behalf of the central government, and cancelled the requirement for approval and verification of 123 vocational qualifications. Seventy percent of the intermediary services involved in the review and approval practices of State Council bodies were cancelled. The requirement for pre-registration government review and approval on 18 items was cancelled, and these items are now listed as preliminaries that can be prepared by enterprises themselves. For the purpose of streamlining administration and delegating powers, initial steps were taken to establish the three lists and four platforms. Comprehensive steps were taken nationwide to replace the separate business license, organization code certificate, and taxation registration certificate with a unified business license with a unified social credit code. A total of 4.439 million enterprises were registered in 2015, an increase of 21.6%. The provisional regulations on the registration of immovable property were officially implemented.

专栏3:简政放权三张清单、四大平台。

Box 3: Lists and Platforms for Streamlining Administration and Delegating Powers
二是财税金融改革扎实推进。中央对地方转移支付制度进一步完善,税收征管体制改革启动,资源税从价计征范围扩大,营改增改革稳步实施。促进普惠金融、互联网金融、民营银行发展等政策文件发布实施,取消存款利率浮动上限,利率管制基本放开。存款保险制度正式实施。完善人民币汇率中间价形成机制,人民币加入国际货币基金组织特别提款权(SDR)货币篮子。政策性、开发性金融机构改革取得新进展。采取有效措施防范系统性金融风险。 2) Fiscal, tax, and financial reforms were steadily pushed forward. We made further improvements to the system of transfer payments to local governments, launched reform of the administration system for tax collection, extended the price-based resource tax to cover more types of resources, and registered steady progress in replacing business tax with VAT. Policies promoting the development of inclusive finance, Internet finance, and private banks were published and implemented, floating limits on interest rates on deposits were abolished, and most controls over interest rates were lifted. The deposit insurance system was officially implemented. The mechanism for determining the central parity of RMB exchange rate was improved, and the RMB was included in the International Monetary Fund' s special drawing rights (SDR) basket. Fresh progress was made in the reform of policy-backed financial institutions and developmental financial institutions. Effective measures were taken to prevent the occurrence of systemic financial risks.
三是投融资体制持续创新。开展政府和社会资本合作(PPP),通过特许经营、投资补助等多种方式,鼓励引导社会资本参与基础设施和公用事业建设运营。调整和完善固定资产投资项目资本金比例制度。适当调整和放宽企业债券发行条件,推出城市停车场、地下综合管廊、战略性新兴产业、养老产业、双创孵化、配电网建设改造等6个专项债券和项目收益债券、绿色债券创新品种。 3) The investment and financing systems continued to undergo innovation. We used the public-private partnership (PPP) model and other measures such as granting franchise and subsidizing investment to encourage and guide the involvement of nongovernmental capital in the construction and operation of infrastructure and public utilities. We adjusted and improved the capital contribution requirements for fixed-asset investment projects. We properly adjusted and relaxed corporate bond issuance requirements, and issued new bonds such as project revenue bonds and bonds for eco-friendly initiatives, as well as six special bonds to finance the construction of urban parking lots and underground utility tunnels, the development of strategic emerging industries, the improvement of elderly care services, the building of incubators for entrepreneurship and innovation, and the construction and upgrading of power distribution grids.

四是价格改革力度加大。印发实施推进价格机制改革的若干意见。放开、下放近40项商品和服务价格。修订政府定价目录,中央、地方具体定价项目分别减少80%和55%。降低燃煤发电上网电价和工商业用电价格,大幅降低非居民用天然气门站价格。健全节能环保价格政策。继续清理规范进出口环节收费。

4) Price reform was intensified. The guidelines for moving ahead with price reform were published and implemented. Pricing controls over nearly 40 goods and services were either lifted or delegated to lower-level governments. We revised the government pricing catalog, with pricing items being reduced by 80% for the central government and by 55% for local governments. We reduced the price of on-grid electricity from coal-fired power plants and the price of electricity for industry and commerce, and significantly decreased natural gas citygate prices for non-residential users. We improved pricing policies to make them more conducive to energy conservation and environmental protection. We further reviewed and standardized charges related to imports and exports.

专栏4:重点领域价格改革。

Box 4: Price Reform in Key Areas
五是国有企业和重点行业改革稳步展开。10项国有企业改革试点启动实施。国资委履行出资人职责的中央企业从112家减少到106家。新一轮电力体制改革启动。石油天然气勘查开发体制改革开始试点。国有林场和国有林区、水利、供销社、农垦改革有序推进。 5) Steady progress was made in the reform of State-owned Enterprises (SOEs) and major industries. Ten pilot projects were launched as part of the reform of SOEs and the number of central government enterprises for which the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission is the investor was reduced from 112 to 106. We started a new round of structural reform of the electricity industry, began trials to reform the petroleum and natural gas exploration and exploitation system, and systematically promoted the reform of state forestry farms and forestry regions, water conservancy enterprises, rural supply and marketing cooperatives, and state farms on reclaimed land.

专栏5:国有企业改革。

Box 5: Reform of SOEs
六是社会领域改革继续深化。城乡义务教育经费保障机制进一步完善。机关事业单位养老保险制度改革启动。在100个城市开展公立医院综合改革试点,县级公立医院综合改革全面推开,城乡居民大病保险覆盖所有基本医保参保人,分级诊疗制度积极推进。临时救助制度全面实施。降低失业、工伤、生育保险费率,每年可减少企业缴费600多亿元。中央和国家机关公务用车制度改革全面完成,中央企事业单位公务用车制度改革启动实施,地方党政机关公务用车制度改革深入推进。行业协会商会与行政机关脱钩试点全面推开。青海等9省市开展国家公园体制试点。 6) Social reforms were deepened. The mechanism for securing funding for urban and rural compulsory education was improved. Reform of the old age insurance system in Party and government bodies and public institutions was launched. Comprehensive reform of public hospitals was fully implemented in all counties with the reform also being carried out on a trial basis in 100 cities. We worked to ensure that all rural and non-working urban residents who have subscribed to basic medical insurance are also covered by the major disease insurance scheme, and actively promoted the system of tiered diagnosis and treatment. The temporary assistance system was implemented throughout the country. We lowered the premiums for unemployment insurance, workers' compensation, and maternity insurance, which has helped enterprises to reduce annual contributions by over 60 billion yuan. Reform of the system for the use of official vehicles was completed in all organs of the CPC Central Committee and the State Council, this reform was also launched in central government enterprises and public institutions, and its implementation was deepened in local Party and government bodies. Trials to untie industry associations and chambers of commerce from any connections they may have with the government were carried out nationwide. The national park system was implemented on a trial basis in Qinghai and other eight provinces and provincial-level municipalities.
七是对外开放新格局加快形成。构建开放型经济新体制的若干意见发布实施。推进共建“一带一路”的愿景与行动正式发布,“六廊六路多国多港”建设取得积极进展。对“一带一路”相关国家直接投资148亿美元,增长18.2%。国际产能和装备制造合作指导意见发布实施,铁路、核电等走出去实现突破。亚洲基础设施投资银行正式成立,丝路基金启动运行。支持沿边重点地区开发开放若干政策措施的意见出台。修订外商投资产业指导目录,外商投资限制类条目减少50%,有股比要求的条目减少40%,95%以上项目实现备案管理。外债管理由审批制改为备案登记制。新设立广东、天津、福建3个自贸试验区,上海自贸试验区扩展区域。签署中韩、中澳自贸协定和中国-东盟自贸区升级议定书。非金融类外商直接投资1263亿美元,增长5.6%,其中服务业利用外资比重超过60%。非金融类境外直接投资1180亿美元,增长14.7%。

7) The pace to create a new pattern of opening up was accelerated. Guidelines on building new systems for an open economy were issued and implemented. The Vision and Action Plan for Jointly Building the Silk Road Economic Belt and the 21st Century Maritime Silk Road (the Belt and Road) was officially published, and progress was achieved in the development of six economic corridors and six channels for communications and distribution with key countries and ports serving as connection hubs*. Direct investments totaling US$ 14.8 billion were made to the countries involved in the Belt and Road Initiative, an increase of 18.2% over the previous year. The guidelines on international cooperation on industrial capacity and equipment manufacturing were released and implemented, and breakthroughs were made in China's rail transit technology and nuclear power "going global" . The Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank was officially established and the Silk Road Fund was put into operation. Guidelines relating to certain policies and measures supporting the development and opening up of major border areas were published. As a result of implementing the revised Catalog for the Guidance of Industries for Foreign Investment, the number of industries in which foreign investment is restricted was cut by 50%, the number of industries in which the amount of foreign investment is limited was reduced by 40%, and over 95% of all foreign investment projects are now only required to be placed on record with relevant authorities. The model for managing foreign debt was transformed so that foreign debt needs only to be registered instead of reviewed and approved. An additional three pilot free trade zones were established in Guangdong, Tianjin, and Fujian, and the China (Shanghai) Pilot Free Trade Zone was extended in area. Free trade agreements with the Republic of Korea (RoK) and Australia were signed respectively, as was the Protocol to Amend the Framework Agreement on Comprehensive Economic Cooperation between ASEAN and the People's Republic of China. Non-financial foreign direct investment totaled US$ 126.3 billion, a year-on-year increase of 5.6%, of which the service sector accounted for over 60%. Non-financial outward direct investment amounted to US$ 118 billion, an increase of 14.7%.

* The six economic corridors include the New Eurasian Continental Bridge, the China-Mongolia-Russia corridor, the China-Central Asia-West Asia corridor, the China-Indochina Peninsula corridor, the China-Pakistan corridor, and the Bangladesh-China-India-Myanmar corridor. The six channels for communications and distribution refer to highways, railways, airlines, waterways, pipelines, and information networks.

专栏6:国际产能和装备制造合作。

Box 6: International Cooperation on Industrial Capacity and Equipment Manufacturing
(三)坚持创新驱动发展,新产业新业态加快形成。出台深化体制机制改革加快实施创新驱动发展战略的若干意见,推进全面创新改革试验,大力推动创新和产业升级。 3. We continued to pursue innovation-driven development and accelerated the development of new industries and new forms of business. We issued guidelines on deepening structural and institutional reforms and accelerating the implementation of the innovation-driven development strategy, pushed forward pilot reforms for all-round innovation, and devoted great energy to promoting innovation and industrial upgrading.
一是大众创业、万众创新蓬勃发展。大力推进大众创业、万众创新若干政策措施的意见出台实施。“互联网+”行动计划启动,大数据、电子商务等领域新业态不断涌现。众创众包众扶众筹支撑平台加快发展,全国各类众创空间超过2300家,技术转移示范机构达453家,技术交易总额接近1万亿元。国家新兴产业创业投资引导基金设立。中小企业公共服务平台在26个省实现互联互通。首届全国双创活动周成功举办。

1) Entrepreneurship and innovation gained momentum. We published and implemented guidelines on certain policies and measures for promoting entrepreneurship and innovation. The Internet Plus action plan was launched and new forms of business continued to emerge in sectors such as big data and E-commerce. Efforts were stepped up to develop support platforms for crowd innovation, crowdsourcing, crowd support, and crowdfunding, with the number of maker spaces in China exceeding 2,300, the number of institutions for demonstrating technology transfer reaching 453, and the total value of the trade in technology reaching almost one trillion yuan. The state seed fund for investment in emerging industries was set up, the public service platforms for small and medium-sized enterprises in 26 provinces were interconnected, and the first National Week for Entrepreneurship and Innovation was held.

专栏7:创新驱动。

Box 7: Innovation-Driven Development
二是传统产业转型升级步伐加快。“中国制造2025”和增强制造业核心竞争力三年行动计划启动实施,在增强制造业核心竞争力、产业振兴和技术改造等领域推进一批重大工程。具有自主知识产权的中国标准动车组成功下线,一批现代农业机械高端产品取得突破,成功组建国家机器人检测与评定中心,自主品牌工业机器人示范应用顺利推进。先进制造产业投资基金设立,首期基金规模200亿元,有效吸引了社会资本参与。 2) The transformation and upgrading of traditional industries were accelerated. The Made in China 2025 strategy and the three-year action plan for enhancing the core competitiveness of our manufacturing industries were launched. We advanced major projects in the manufacturing sector aimed at strengthening core competitiveness, promoting industrial rejuvenation, and encouraging technology upgrading. The Chinese-standard EMU trains for which we hold the intellectual property rights rolled off the production line, breakthroughs in the development of a number of sophisticated modern agricultural machines were made, the National Robot Test and Evaluation Center was established, and smooth progress was made in the demonstration and application of Chinese-brand industrial robots. We set up an investment fund for advanced manufacturing, raising 20 billion yuan in the first round of funding, a portion of which came from private investors.
三是坚定不移化解产能严重过剩矛盾。清理整顿违规项目,严禁备案和建设产能严重过剩行业新增产能项目,产能扩张势头得到遏制。全年淘汰炼铁产能1300万吨、炼钢1700万吨、水泥3800万吨、电解铝30万吨、平板玻璃1100万重量箱以上。煤炭行业脱困深入推进。 3) Unremitting efforts were made to address the serious problem of overcapacity. In order to curb the expansion of production capacity, we reviewed and reorganized projects that were in violation of relevant regulations, and strictly forbade the registration and construction of new projects in industries that were already burdened with severe overcapacity. Last year we reduced excess production capacity by 13 million metric tons of iron, 17 million metric tons of steel, 38 million metric tons of cement, 300,000 metric tons of electrolytic aluminum, and 11 million weight cases of plate glass. Efforts were stepped up to help turn the coal industry around.
四是战略性新兴产业取得新进展。国家民用空间基础设施建设全面启动,我国自主研制的C919大型客机总装下线,ARJ21新型支线飞机实现首架交付。北斗卫星导航系统广泛应用,云计算、基因检测、新能源汽车、机器人、移动互联网等行业快速发展,集成电路、海洋工程装备、医疗器械等行业向高端迈进。 4) New progress was made in the development of strategic emerging industries. The national program for civil space infrastructure was fully implemented; China' s homegrown large passenger aircraft, the C919, rolled off the production line; and the new regional airliner, the ARJ21, was put into service. The BeiDou Navigation Satellite System was widely used, and sectors such as cloud computing, genetic testing, new-energy vehicles, robotics, and mobile Internet experienced rapid development. A number of industries including integrated circuits, marine engineering equipment, and medical equipment started moving toward the high end.
五是现代服务业加快创新发展。加快发展生活性服务业促进消费结构升级的指导意见出台,服务业市场准入进一步放开,综合改革试点扎实推进,跨境电子商务综合试验区进展顺利。第三产业增加值增长8.3%。 5) Innovation in and development of the modern service industry were accelerated. We issued guidelines on accelerating the development of consumer services and promoting the upgrading of the consumption structure, further lifted restrictions on market access in the service sector, made solid progress in comprehensive pilot reforms in this area, and advanced smoothly the development of integrated experimental zones for cross-border E-commerce. The value-added of the tertiary industry increased by 8.3% over the previous year.
六是基础设施网络更加完善。综合交通体系建设全面推进,网络总里程达到494万公里。能源供应能力增强,消费结构优化,非化石能源消费比重上升到12%,煤炭消费比重下降到64%。“宽带中国”战略深入推进,新一代信息基础设施日趋完善。 6) Infrastructure networks were further improved. We pressed ahead with the development of comprehensive transportation systems, with the length of transportation lines open to traffic reaching 4.94 million kilometers. China's energy supply capacity was enhanced and its energy consumption structure was improved, with the proportion of non-fossil energy consumption increasing to 12% of total energy consumption, while coal consumption decreased to account for 64% of total energy consumption. The National Broadband Internet Agenda was further implemented and next-generation information infrastructure continued to improve.

专栏8:重大基础设施建设。

Box 8: Major Infrastructure Construction
(四)推动城乡区域协调发展,新的增长点增长极增长带加快形成。“三大战略”、“四大板块”、新型城镇化积极推进,新的发展空间不断拓展。 4. We promoted coordinated development between urban and rural areas and between regions and sped up the formation of new areas of growth, growth poles, and growth belts. Positive headway was made in the implementation of the Three Initiatives (the Silk Road Economic Belt and 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Initiative; the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region; and the development of the Yangtze River Economic Belt), the development of the four regions (the western, northeastern, central, and eastern regions), and the promotion of the New Urbanization, all of which have made a contribution toward creating new space for development.
一是“三大战略”正在从蓝图向现实转化。“一带一路”建设开局良好。京津冀协同发展稳步前行,北京非首都功能疏解有序开展,交通、生态、产业三个重点领域率先突破加快推进。长江经济带发展深入推进,绿色生态廊道加快构建,综合交通体系逐步完善。 1) The blueprint for the Three Initiatives produced tangible results. The Belt and Road Initiative got off to a good start. Steady progress was made in the coordinated development of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, with functions non-essential to Beijing's role as the capital being relocated away from the city in an orderly manner and initial breakthroughs being made in the three key areas of transportation, ecological conservation, and industry. Efforts to develop the Yangtze River Economic Belt were stepped up, with the development of the green, ecological corridor beginning to pick up speed and the comprehensive transportation system being gradually improved.

专栏9:“三大战略”实施。

Box 9: Implementation of the Three Initiatives
二是“四大板块”发展更趋协调。新一轮西部大开发战略加快落实,采取有效举措积极应对东北地区经济下行压力,中部地区综合交通枢纽和生态经济区建设步伐加快,东部地区在改革创新、转型升级、提质增效方面继续发挥示范作用。国家级新区建设发展势头良好。 2) The development of the four regions became more coordinated. Efforts were increased to accelerate large-scale development in the western region, while effective measures were adopted to respond to the downward pressure on economic development in the northeast. The development of integrated transportation hubs and eco-economic zones in the central region was accelerated. And the eastern region continued to play an exemplary role in carrying out reform and innovation, transforming and upgrading industries, and improving the quality and performance of the economy. In addition, state-level new areas enjoyed sound development.

专栏10:“四大板块”建设。

Box 10: Development of the Four Regions

专栏11:重要功能平台构建。

Box 11: Development of Major Function Platforms
三是新型城镇化积极稳妥推进。“一融双新”工程进展顺利,27个省区市和新疆生产建设兵团出台户籍制度改革实施意见,居住证暂行条例印发实施。新型城市建设和新生中小城市培育有序推进。长三角、成渝、哈长等城市群规划编制完成。国家新型城镇化综合试点扩大到2个省和135个城市(镇)。市县“多规合一”改革取得积极成效。 3) The New Urbanization was advanced in an active yet prudent way. Projects to help rural migrant workers become permanent urban residents, to cultivate emerging small and medium-sized cities, and to promote new models of urban development all made smooth progress. Twenty-seven provinces (including autonomous regions and municipalities directly under the central government) as well as the Xinjiang Production and Construction Corps published their guidelines for carrying out reform of the household registration system, and provisional regulations concerning the residence certificate were published and implemented. Steady progress was made in advancing new models of urban development and in the cultivation of emerging small and medium-sized cities. Plans for the development of city clusters were completed for the Yangtze River Delta, and for the Chengdu-Chongqing and Harbin-Changchun regions. We further extended the state comprehensive pilot project for the New Urbanization to two provinces and 135 cities or towns. Positive results were achieved in implementing the reform to replace multiple plans for city (county) development with one master plan.
(五)加快转变农业发展方式,农业现代化扎实推进。农业和农村经济平稳发展,粮食产量实现“十二连增”。 5. We accelerated the transformation of the agricultural growth model and made solid progress in agricultural modernization. Agricultural and rural development remained steady, and grain output increased for the twelfth consecutive year.
一是农业支持政策创新完善。“三农”投入继续加大,中央预算内投资用于“三农”的比重连续5年超过50%。全国涉农资金专项整治行动圆满完成,省级涉农资金整合优化试点启动实施。粮食最低收购价和临时收储政策逐步完善,新疆棉花、东北和内蒙古大豆目标价格改革试点进展顺利。粮棉油糖化肥等重要商品市场调控加强。 1) Support policies for agriculture were innovated and improved. Investment in agriculture, rural areas, and farmers continued to grow, and for the fifth consecutive year the proportion of funds appropriated for investment in these three areas from the central government budget exceeded 50% of total funds. The program for the review of state funds for agricultural development was successfully completed, and the trials of integrating and optimizing the use of provincial funds for agricultural development were launched. We worked steadily to improve the policy for setting minimum state grain purchase prices and the policy for the temporary state purchase and storage of grain, and solid progress was made in implementing pilot reforms for guaranteeing base prices for cotton in Xinjiang, and for soybean in the northeast and Inner Mongolia. We strengthened regulation over the market for major commodities such as grain, cotton, edible oil, sugar, and chemical fertilizers.
二是农业农村基础设施建设继续强化。重大水利工程建设加快推进。大中型灌区节水改造和新增1000亿斤粮食生产能力规划田间工程加快实施,现代种业基础设施建设得到加强,粮食收储仓容建设力度加大。农村水电路气房等基础设施建设深入推进,城乡基础设施和公共服务设施互联互通、共建共享步伐加快。农业面源污染治理、东北黑土地保护利用、已垦草原治理试点启动,耕地重金属污染治理、地下水超采治理试点积极推进。 2) Agricultural and rural infrastructure development was further strengthened. Construction on major water conservancy projects was accelerated. We stepped up efforts to upgrade water-saving facilities in medium-sized and large irrigation areas and carried out farmland improvement projects to support the plan to increase China's grain production capacity by 50 million metric tons, while also developing the infrastructure needed for a modern seed industry and expanding the capacity of grain silos. Further progress was made in strengthening rural infrastructure such as roads, housing, and water, power, and methane supply capacity. In order to increase cooperation and connectivity, urban and rural areas moved faster to jointly build and share infrastructure as well as public service facilities. Pilot projects were launched to control pollution from non-point agricultural sources, utilize and protect chernozem soil in the northeast, and improve the management of grassland reclamation areas; and progress was made in the trials for treating heavy-metal pollution on farmland and the over-abstraction of groundwater.

专栏12:农业农村基础设施建设。

Box 12: Agricultural and Rural Infrastructure Development
三是农业结构调整迈出新步伐。粮食产量6.21亿吨,肉蛋奶、果蔬茶、水产品等重要农产品丰产丰收。畜禽养殖规模化率提高到54%,粮改饲、粮豆轮作试点全面启动。农作物耕种收综合机械化水平达到63%,农业科技进步贡献率56%。 3) New strides were made in agricultural structural adjustment. Grain output reached 621 million metric tons, and harvests and production levels remained high for major agricultural products such as meat, egg, milk, fruits, vegetables, tea, and aquatic products. As much as 54% of livestock and poultry farming is now carried out on a large scale; trials to replace grain crop cultivation with feed crop cultivation and to rotate crops between grain and soybean were launched across the board. The overall level of mechanization in plowing, sowing, and harvesting reached 63%, and advances in agricultural science and technology contributed to 56% of agricultural production.
四是农村改革稳步推进。农村土地征收、集体经营性建设用地入市和宅基地制度改革试点在33个县级行政区域实施,农村承包土地经营权和农民住房财产权抵押贷款试点在278个县级行政区域实施。农村集体资产股份权能改革试点有序推进。家庭农场、农民合作社、产业化龙头企业等新型农业经营主体近250万家。 4) Steady progress was achieved in rural reform. Pilot reforms relating to rural land requisition, the marketization of rural collective land designated for business-related construction, and the system of land used for rural housing were carried out in 33 county-level administrative areas; and trials to allow contracted rural land-use rights and farmers' home property rights to be used as collateral to borrow money were implemented in 278 county-level administrative areas. The pilot reform relating to granting shareholder rights for rural collective assets proceeded in an orderly manner. The number of family farms, farmers' cooperatives, leading agricultural enterprises, and other new types of agribusiness amounted to nearly 2.5 million.
(六)生态文明建设力度加大,节能环保目标超额完成。单位国内生产总值能耗和二氧化碳排放量分别下降5.6%和6%以上,二氧化硫、化学需氧量、氨氮、氮氧化物排放量分别下降5.8%、3.1%、3.6%和10.9%,万元工业增加值用水量下降3.9%。 6. We intensified efforts to promote ecological progress, and surpassed this year' s targets for energy conservation and environmental protection. Energy consumption per unit of GDP dropped by at least 5.6%, carbon dioxide emissions by at least 6%, sulfur dioxide emissions by 5.8%, chemical oxygen demand by 3.1%, ammonia nitrogen by 3.6%, nitrogen oxide emissions by 10.9%, and water consumption per 10,000 yuan of value-added of industry by 3.9%.
一是生态文明建设持续加强。加快推进生态文明建设的意见和生态文明体制改革总体方案发布实施,生态文明先行示范区建设进展顺利。主体功能区环境政策、全国海洋主体功能区规划、全国生态功能区划印发实施。扩大新一轮退耕还林还草工程实施范围,完成造林面积632万公顷,全国草原综合植被盖度达54%。石漠化治理、湿地保护得到加强,新增水土流失综合治理面积540万公顷。 1) Efforts to promote ecological conservation continued to intensify. We promulgated and implemented both the guidelines on accelerating ecological advancement and the integrated reform plan for promoting ecological progress, and continued to ensure the smooth development of pilot demonstration zones for promoting ecological progress. Environmental policies relating to functional zones, the national plan for marine functional zones, and the revised national plan for ecosystem service zones were published and implemented. We expanded the scope of a new round of projects to return marginal farmland to forest or grassland and afforested 6.32 million hectares of land, and the national vegetation fractional coverage of grasslands reached 54%. Efforts were intensified to prevent the expansion of stony deserts and protect wetlands, and integrated measures were taken to bring soil erosion under control on an additional 5.4 million hectares of land.
二是节能减排深入开展。在大气污染治理重点城市实行煤炭消费总量控制,煤电节能减排升级改造行动计划全面实施。环境污染第三方治理、再制造产品“以旧换再”和生产者责任延伸制度等试点示范有序开展。绿色建筑积极推进。农作物秸秆综合利用得到加强。 2) Further progress was made in energy conservation and emissions reduction. A ceiling on total coal consumption was imposed in each major air-polluting city, and the action plan to promote energy conservation and reduce emissions through the upgrading of coal-fired power plants was fully implemented. The pilot demonstration projects to commission a third party to treat pollution, encourage the trading in of old equipment and parts for remanufactured ones, and implement a system for extended producer responsibility were all carried out in an orderly manner. We promoted both the construction of green buildings and the comprehensive utilization of crop straw.
三是污染治理全力推进。首批实施新环境空气质量标准的74个城市细颗粒物(PM2.5)平均浓度下降14.1%。重点流域水污染防治和湖泊生态环境保护工程力度加大,地表水达到或好于Ⅲ类水体比例提高到66%。启动土壤污染治理与修复试点示范项目,推进污染场地环境监管试点。 3) An all-out effort was made to address pollution. The average concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM2.5) dropped by 14.1% in the 74 cities where the new ambient air quality standards were first applied last year. More efforts were made to prevent and control water pollution in major water basins and to protect the ecosystems of lakes; as a result, the proportion of surface water with a water quality rating of Grade III or higher has risen to 66%. The pilot demonstration project to treat and restore contaminated soil was launched, and progress was made in trials for the environmental monitoring of contaminated sites.
四是应对气候变化取得新进展。启动第一批低碳城(镇)试点。在北京、天津、上海、重庆、广东、湖北、深圳等7个地方推进碳排放权交易试点。建设性参与气候变化巴黎大会,提出全球气候治理中国方案,推动达成巴黎协定。 4) Fresh achievements were made in responding to climate change. The first round of pilot projects for low-carbon cities (towns) were launched, and trials for trading carbon emissions rights were carried out in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing, Guangdong, Hubei, and Shenzhen. Our participation and constructive role at the United Nations Climate Change conference in Paris allowed us to put forward China's approach to climate governance and make a contribution toward the adoption of the Paris Climate Agreement.
(七)更加注重保障和改善民生,民生福祉持续改善。多措并举增投入、补短板、兜底线,扎牢民生保障网。 7. We put greater emphasis on ensuring and improving living standards and made consistent progress in improving people's quality of life. Multiple methods were used to increase investment, strengthen points of weakness, and help those most in need, thereby helping to weave a strong social safety net.
一是精准扶贫精准脱贫步伐加快。易地扶贫搬迁、产业扶贫、转移就业、教育扶贫、健康扶贫等扶贫工程启动实施。全年农村贫困人口减少1442万人。对革命老区开发建设、赣南等原中央苏区振兴发展的支持力度明显加大。加强中央支持和对口支援,进一步促进新疆、西藏和四川、云南、甘肃、青海四省藏区经济社会发展和长治久安。 1) The implementation of targeted measures to reduce poverty gathered pace. We launched a number of projects to alleviate poverty, such as relocating people from inhospitable areas, supporting the development of local industries, promoting education and helping to increase health standards in poor areas, and providing support for people seeking employment. The number of people living in poverty in rural areas was reduced by 14.42 million. Greater efforts were made to support the development of the old revolutionary base areas and the revitalization of the former Central Soviet areas including southern Jiangxi. We strengthened support from the central government and pairing assistance programs for underdeveloped localities, and took further steps to promote both the economic and social development and the long-term peace and stability of Xinjiang, Tibet, and Tibetan ethnic areas in Sichuan, Yunnan, Gansu and Qinghai.
二是居民收入稳定增长。全国居民人均可支配收入实际增长7.4%,其中农村居民人均纯收入突破万元大关,实际增长7.5%,增幅连续第6年高于经济增速和城镇居民收入增幅。城乡居民收入比下降到2.73:1。 2) Personal income increased steadily. Per capita disposable personal income increased by 7.4% in real terms. Rural per capita net income exceeded 10,000 yuan and registered a 7.5% increase in real terms, making it the sixth consecutive year in which the increase in rural per capita net income has surpassed the growth rate of both GDP and urban per capita disposable income. The ratio of urban income to rural income per capita dropped to 2.73:1.
三是社会保障水平稳步提高。基本养老保险参保人数达到8.58亿人,基本医疗保险参保率稳定在95%以上。企业退休人员养老金水平继续提高,城乡居民基础养老金最低标准由每人每月55元提高到70元。城乡居民医保财政补助标准由每人每年320元提高到380元。特困人员供养制度开始规范建立,20个省市建立了困难残疾人生活补贴和重度残疾人护理补贴制度,800多万残疾人受益。 3) Steady progress was made in the area of social security. The number of people covered by basic old-age insurance has reached 858 million. The rate of participation for basic medical insurance stood at over 95% and pension benefits for enterprise retirees continued to rise. The minimum basic pension benefit for rural and non-working urban residents rose from 55 yuan to 70 yuan per month. The annual government subsidy for basic medical insurance covering rural and non-working urban residents was increased from 320 yuan to 380 yuan per person. Work to establish a standardized system to provide basic necessities for people experiencing extreme difficulties began. The system for granting living allowances to people with disabilities who are facing financial difficulties and a caring subsidy to people with serious disabilities was put in place in 20 provinces and provincial-level municipalities, with over eight million people benefiting from the system.
四是公共服务供给水平进一步提升。贫困地区义务教育薄弱学校办学条件持续改善,乡村教师支持计划启动实施,农村贫困地区学生进入重点大学渠道进一步畅通。九年义务教育巩固率、高中阶段教育毛入学率分别达到93%和87%。基层医疗服务体系、重大疾病防治体系、全科医生培养基地建设加强,人均基本公共卫生服务经费达到40元,服务项目扩大到12类。国家基本公共文化服务指导标准发布实施,地市级公共文化服务设施建设支持力度加大。体育产业创新发展取得积极进展。 4) Better public services were provided. We continued to improve the basic conditions of badly built and poorly operated schools providing compulsory education in poor areas, launched the plan to strengthen the workforce of teachers in rural areas, and opened up more channels through which students from poor rural areas enter key colleges and universities. The retention rate of nine-year compulsory education reached 93%, while the gross enrollment ratio for senior secondary education reached 87%. We improved the system for community-level medical care services, the prevention and control system for major diseases, and the work to train general practitioners. The per capita government expenditures on basic public health services increased to 40 yuan, with the number of categories of basic public health services increasing to 12. We issued and implemented the national standards to guide the provision of basic public cultural services, and increased support to improve prefecture-level facilities for public cultural services. Significant progress was made in catalyzing innovative development in the sports industry.

专栏13:公共服务供给。

Box 13: Provision of Public Services
五是保障性安居工程建设顺利推进。加大中央预算内投资和中央财政专项资金支持力度,安排专项建设基金和企业债券融资,支持棚户区改造等保障性安居工程。全年城镇保障性安居工程新开工783万套,基本建成772万套。 5) The construction of government-subsidized housing progressed smoothly. We supported government-subsidized housing projects, such as the rebuilding of run-down areas, by increasing central government's budgetary investments and special funding in this area, allocating special development funds, and securing financing through corporate debt issuance. Over the last year, construction began on 7.83 million government-subsidized housing units in urban areas and construction on 7.72 million units was basically completed.
从计划指标运行情况看,经济增长、价格总水平、国际收支平衡、就业等总量指标保持在合理区间,一些反映经济结构和质量的指标进一步改善,社会发展和民生保障类指标继续向好,资源节约利用和环境保护类指标完成情况较好,计划指标的完成情况总体是好的。 In assessing performance in relation to meeting the targets projected in the plan, overall targets for national economic and social development, such as the economic growth rate, the consumer price index, the balance of payments, and employment levels, remained within the proper range; those targets reflecting economic structure and quality were further improved; targets regarding social development and people's wellbeing maintained positive momentum; and targets related to resource conservation and environmental protection were implemented satisfactorily. Overall, planned targets were well met.
18个约束性指标全部完成。41个预期性指标中,35个运行情况符合或好于预期,5个指标运行值与预期值存在差距,1个由于统计口径变化数据不可比。需要说明的是,预期性指标的计划目标不是指令性的,也不是预测值,而是国家期望的发展目标,体现预期和政策导向,实际运行情况是市场行为的客观结果,可能高于预期目标,也可能低于预期目标。部分指标运行值与预期目标存在差距,有以下几种情况。一是为体现宏观调控内需导向,社会消费品零售总额和全社会固定资产投资指标定得比预测值稍高一些,是全年的努力目标,实际运行结果与预期目标会有一定差距。社会消费品零售总额指标受输入性通缩以及国内部分工业品价格下跌、农产品价格涨幅有限等影响,实际增幅基本符合预期,但名义增长则低于年初确定的预期目标。全社会固定资产投资指标,主要是在国际市场低迷、内需不足的情况下,部分制造业行业出现产能严重过剩,加上三四线城市房地产库存高企以及投资品价格降幅持续扩大等因素影响,全年增长也低于年初确定的预期目标。二是有的指标低于预期存在特殊因素。2015年经济下行压力加大、企业利润持续下滑,制约了研发投入,加上2014年研究与试验发展经费支出与国内生产总值之比的统计数据,由年初的2.09%修正为年末的2.05%,使得2015年预期目标未能实现。三是国际经济环境变化导致有的指标全年数值低于预期目标。受全球贸易放缓、国际能源价格大幅下跌影响,进出口总额指标增速低于预期目标。国际大宗商品价格大幅下跌,加之国内市场需求不旺,导致天然气产量指标未能达到全年预期目标。此外,由于主管部门调整了户籍人口统计口径,户籍人口城镇化率指标2015年实际数与计划数不可比。 All 18 obligatory targets have been achieved as planned. Of the 41 anticipatory targets, the performance of 35 was in line with or better than expectations, 5 fell short of the projected figures, and there is one target for which the figures are not comparable due to changes in the statistical standards. It should be noted that the anticipatory targets are neither mandatory nor predicted; they are development objectives that the government hopes to achieve and a reflection of the anticipated direction of national development and policy orientation. The actual performance of these targets is objectively decided by the market, and may be higher or lower than the projected figures. The reasons for the discrepancies between the projected figures for some anticipatory targets and the actual performance are as follows: First, in order to reflect the orientation of macro-control policies toward boosting domestic demand, the targets of total retail sales of consumer goods and fixed-asset investment were set slightly higher than the estimated figures. These were targets for us to work toward over the course of the whole year, and as a result, there was a minor difference between the actual performance and the projected figures. The actual increase in the total retail sales of consumer goods basically met the projected target in real terms, but was lower than the target set at the beginning of the year in nominal terms because of imported deflation, the decline in the prices of some domestically manufactured goods, and the limited increase in the prices of agricultural products. In the face of a sluggish international market and insufficient domestic demand, total fixed-asset investment also fell short of the projected figure set at the beginning of 2015. This was due to serious overcapacity in some manufacturing industries; excess supply in the real estate markets of third- and fourth-tier cities; and a sustained fall in the prices of goods for investment as well as other factors. Second, unique factors resulted in the target for spending on R&D being lower than the projected figure. This was due to the increasing downward pressure on economic growth and the continued decline in the profits of enterprises in 2015. In addition, the figure for spending on R&D as a percentage of GDP in 2014 was adjusted statistically from 2.09% at the beginning of the year to 2.05% at the end of the year. These factors meant that the 2015 target for R&D spending as a percentage of GDP was not achieved. Third, changes in the international economic environment caused the yearly figures for some targets to be lower than the projected figures. Under the influence of a slowdown in the growth of world trade and a slump in energy prices on the international market, the growth of total import and export volume was slower than projected. A sharp drop in the prices of major commodities on the global market and the slackening demand for natural gas on the domestic market also meant that natural gas output for last year fell short of the projected target. Finally, the statistical standards for calculating the population using household registration have been adjusted by the competent department, and therefore the actual figure for the percentage of the population registered as urban residents in 2015 is not comparable with the projected figure.
总之,在国内外形势错综复杂的情况下,我国经济社会发展取得的成就来之不易。这是党中央国务院正确领导的结果,是各地区各部门共同努力的结果,是全国各族人民团结奋斗的结果。经过五年的努力,“十二五”规划《纲要》主要指标顺利完成。 In brief, facing complex situations both at home and abroad, the achievements that China has made thus far in economic and social development have not come easily. They are the result of the correct leadership of the Party Central Committee and the State Council, and the concerted efforts of all regions and departments and the people of all our ethnic groups. Through five years of hard work, the major targets set out in the Twelfth Five-Year Plan for National Economic and Social Development have been successfully completed.
同时,我们也清醒地认识到,世界经济继续深度调整、分化明显,全球经济、国际贸易双双低速增长,地缘政治风险上升,复苏基础仍相当脆弱,外部环境的不稳定不确定因素增加。国内经济处于“三期叠加”阶段,经济持续下行带来的不利影响和长期积累的深层次矛盾特别是结构性矛盾进一步显现,发展面临的形势可能更加错综复杂,困难可能会更大。一是经济下行压力加大。需求放缓趋势仍在延续。外需总体疲弱,外贸形势更加严峻复杂。受工业品价格持续低迷、劳动力等要素成本上升影响,投资特别是制造业投资增长乏力。随着经济下行压力逐步向就业、收入领域传导,对居民消费的影响可能显现。二是实体经济困难继续加重。受需求不足和综合成本上升的双重挤压,部分行业企业盈利能力下降、亏损增加,困难企业增多。一些行业和企业出现裁员或隐性失业情况。三是结构性矛盾进一步凸显。有效需求乏力和有效供给不足并存,新旧动力转换不均衡。供给侧结构性矛盾更加突出,供给体系调整滞后,有效供给不能适应需求总量和结构变化,结构性产能过剩依然比较严重。四是生态环境问题依然突出。大气污染形势严峻,严重雾霾天气在一些城市和地区时有发生。水环境质量偏低,一些地方地下水严重超采。一些地区土壤污染治理任务艰巨。环境基础设施建设滞后。五是各方面风险因素积聚交织。财政收入增速放缓,收支矛盾突出,地方债务存在局部风险隐患。银行业不良贷款余额和比例“双升”,企业负债率上升,非法集资多发,潜在金融风险仍在积聚。与此同时,安全生产和民生等领域也出现一些新问题。我们要高度重视,充分估计经济下行带来的困难和挑战,增强忧患意识,坚持底线思维,既保持战略定力,又及时做好预警预案预控,更加有效应对,认真加以解决。

At the same time, we should also be keenly aware that the world economy is still undergoing profound adjustment, the divergence of economies is pronounced, growth of the global economy and trade are sluggish, geopolitical risks are on the rise, the foundation for economic recovery is still weak, and external instabilities and uncertainties are increasing. In this current period of development, China must simultaneously manage the slowdown in economic growth, make difficult structural adjustments, and absorb the effects of previous economic stimulus policies. As the adverse effects of a sustained slowdown in economic growth continue to persist and deep-seated and longstanding problems, especially structural problems, become more serious, the conditions for China's development may become even more complex and the difficulties even more formidable.

First, the downward pressure on China's economy is mounting. The slowdown in the growth of demand is continuing. With international demand remaining weak, the situation in relation to foreign trade has become more challenging and complex. Affected by the persistently low prices of manufactured goods and the rising costs of labor and other factors of production, growth in investment is slow, particularly in the area of manufacturing. As downward pressure on China's economy begins to affect employment and personal income, it may also spread to and affect private consumption.

Second, the difficulties faced by the real economy are building. Having been pressed by insufficient demand as well as a rise in overall costs, the ability of enterprises in some industries to make a profit has decreased, and with losses in some industries increasing the number of enterprises facing difficulty is also rising. This has resulted in layoffs and hidden unemployment within some enterprises and industries.

Third, structural problems are becoming more prominent. Weak effective demand has been coincident with insufficient effective supply, and the transition from the old to the new drivers of growth has been unbalanced. The delayed adjustment of the supply system has resulted in supply-side structural problems becoming more pronounced, and effective supply has not yet adapted to aggregate demand or to changes in the structure of demand, while structural overcapacity is still a significant problem.

Fourth, ecological and environmental problems are still grave. Air pollution remains serious, with the frequent occurrence of heavy smog in some cities and areas. The quality of the water environment is relatively poor and the over-abstraction of groundwater is severe in some regions; while other regions face an arduous task in bringing soil pollution under control. The construction of environmental infrastructure lags behind.

Fifth, challenges and risks in other areas are accumulating and intertwining. The growth of government revenue is slowing down; the imbalance between revenue and expenditures is becoming more pronounced; and there are risks and hidden dangers in local government debt. The amount and ratio of non-performing loans reported by banks have increased; the debt ratios of enterprises are also rising; illegal fund-raising is becoming more frequent; and hidden financial risks are mounting. At the same time, there are also new problems to be addressed in relation to workplace safety and the people's well-being.

We must attach great importance to these issues, carry out a full evaluation of the difficulties and challenges that have arisen as a result of downward pressure on the economy, and become more aware of potential dangers and the bottom line. We need to maintain our strategic focus while taking timely steps to undertake early warning initiatives, formulate contingency plans, and exercise anticipatory regulation; such measures will ensure that we can respond effectively to these problems and resolve them.



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