李克强在全国推进简政放权放管结合职能转变工作电视电话会议上的讲话
Full text of Chinese Premier's teleconference address on streamlining administration procedures, cutting red tape

 
Comment(s)打印 E-mail China.org.cn  2015-05-25
调整字号大小:

5月12日,国务院在北京召开推进简政放权放管结合职能转变工作电视电话会议。中共中央政治局常委、国务院总理李克强发表讲话。[新华社 王晔 摄]

5月12日,国务院在北京召开推进简政放权放管结合职能转变工作电视电话会议。中共中央政治局常委、国务院总理李克强发表讲话。[新华社 王晔 摄]
Chinese Premier Li Keqiang attends a national teleconference on May 12, 2015, in Beijing to discuss streamlining administration procedures and scaling back government controls to boost the country's economic vitality. [Xinhua]

简政放权 放管结合 优化服务 深化行政体制改革 切实转变政府职能
——在全国推进简政放权放管结合职能转变工作电视电话会议上的讲话
(2015年5月12日)
李克强

Streamline Administration, Delegate Power, Strengthen Regulation and Improve Service to Deepen Administrative Reform and Transform Government Functions
-- The teleconference address on streamlining administration procedures, cutting red tape
May 12, 2015
Li Keqiang

这次会议的主要任务,就是回顾总结两年多来简政放权、放管结合、政府职能转变情况,部署下一阶段的重点工作,把改革推向纵深。 The major tasks of this conference are to review and summerize the situation of streamlining administration, delegating power, strengthening regulation and transforming government functions over the past two years and more, and deploy key tasks for the next phase to further deepen the reform.
一、深化行政体制改革、转变政府职能,是促进发展的强大动力和重要保障 I. To deepen administrative reform and transform government functions are a strong driving force behind and an important guarantee for development.
党的十八大以来,以习近平同志为总书记的党中央对深化行政体制改革提出了明确要求。十八届二中全会指出,转变政府职能是深化行政体制改革的核心。十八届三中全会强调,经济体制改革的核心问题是处理好政府和市场的关系,使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用。本届政府成立伊始,开门办的第一件大事就是推进行政体制改革、转变政府职能,把简政放权、放管结合作为“先手棋”。长期以来,政府对微观经济运行干预过多、管得过死,重审批、轻监管,不仅抑制经济发展活力,而且行政成本高,也容易滋生腐败。推进简政放权、放管结合,就是解决这些突出矛盾和问题的关键一招,也紧紧抓住了行政体制改革和经济体制改革的核心,把握了完善社会主义市场经济体制、加强社会建设的要害。可以说,这项改革是“牛鼻子”,具有牵一发动全身的重要作用。 To transform government functions lies at the core of administrative reform. Economic reform is essentially about striking a balance between the government and the market by enabling the market to play a decisive role in resources allocation and the government to function better. The first task this government undertook after taking office is to advance administrative reform and transform government functions, with streamlining administration, delegating power and strengthening regulation being the first moves. For years, excess intervention and stifling supervision by the government over microeconomic activities as well as too much emphasis on review and approval to the neglect of regulation have sapped economic vitality, incurred high administrative costs and provided breeding grounds for corruption. To streamline administration, delegate power and strengthen regulation is a crucial step to address these acute problems. It tackles the crux of administrative and economic reform and what matters the most in improving the socialist market economy and enhancing social development. It is fair to say that this reform is right at the heart of all reforms with wide-ranging implications.
两年多来,简政放权、放管结合工作取得明显成效。国务院部门共取消或下放行政审批事项537项,本届政府承诺减少三分之一的目标提前两年多完成。投资核准事项中央层面减少76%,境外投资项目核准除特殊情况外全部取消。工商登记实行“先照后证”,前置审批事项85%改为后置审批;注册资本由实缴改为认缴,企业年检改为年报公示。资质资格许可认定和评比达标表彰事项大幅减少。中央层面取消、停征、减免420项行政事业性收费和政府性基金,每年减轻企业和个人负担近千亿元。在放权的同时,采取措施加强事中事后监管。地方各级政府认真贯彻中央决策部署,积极做好“接、放、管”工作。有些省份进展较快,行政审批事项取消和下放比例超过一半、最高的达70%,有的省级非行政许可已全面取消。 Over the past two years and more, notable results have been achieved in streamlining administration, delegating power and strengthening regulation. State Council agencies have canceled or delegated administrative approval power for 537 items, meeting two years ahead of schedule the pledged target of cutting the number of items requiring administrative approval by one third within the term of this government. The number of investment projects subject to central government approval is down by 76%. All overseas investment projects but for a few exceptional cases can now proceed without administrative approval. For companies seeking registration, they can have their business licenses issued to them before getting administrative permits; 85% of the matters that once needed pre-registration approval now only require post-registration approval; with regard to capital registration, the paid-in capital scheme has been replaced with a pledged capital scheme; and annual business inspections have been canceled in favor of annual information disclosure. The number of qualification accreditation and performance appraisal has been cut dramatically. At the central government level, 420 administrative fees and government managed funds have been abolished or reduced, relieving businesses and individuals of their financial burden by nearly 100 billion yuan every year. While delegating power, the government has taken measures to strengthen regulation both during and after projects. Local governments at all levels are earnestly implementing the decisions and plans of the central government and stepping forward to take over, delegate or fulfill responsibilities accordingly. Some provinces have moved faster in this regard, canceling or delegating administrative approval power for over half or, in the highest case, 70% of the matters. In some provinces, non-administrative approval has even become something of the past.

这一系列改革举措有力解放和发展了生产力,激发了市场活力和社会创造力,促进了稳增长、调结构、惠民生,也推动了政府治理能力提升和廉政建设,取得了一举多得的成效。新增市场主体呈现“井喷式”增长,去年达1293万户,其中新注册企业增长45.9%;尽管经济增速放缓,但城镇新增就业仍达到1322万人。今年一至四月份,新注册企业继续保持每天1万户,城镇新增就业445万人。这两年,在国内外形势错综复杂、我国经济下行压力加大的情况下,我们没有采取短期强刺激措施,而是创新宏观调控方式,全面深化改革,使经济运行保持在合理区间,就业连创历史新高,增长速度在世界主要经济体中名列前茅,其中简政放权等改革红利的释放发挥了关键作用。

These reform measures have achieved multiple purposes. They have effectively emancipated productivity, unleashed market vitality and social creativity, helped with efforts to stabilize growth, adjust economic structure and improve people's livelihood, and facilitated the government in building governance capacity and a cleaner government. New market players have mushroomed, reaching 12.93 million last year with a 45.9% increase in the number of newly registered businesses. Despite the economic slowdown, 13.22 million new jobs were created in cities and townships. In the first four months of this year, the number of newly registered businesses grew by 10,000 every day on average and 4.45 million urban jobs were added. Over the last two years, faced with complicated domestic and external developments and growing downward pressure on the economy, we did not resort to massive short-term stimulus. Rather, we innovated the way we regulate the macro economy and deepened reform in all respects. As a result, the economy has continued to run within a reasonable range; records for job creation have been repeatedly set and broken; and the Chinese economy has remained among the fastest-growing major economies in the world. This is largely attributable to the effect of reforms including those to streamline administration and delegate power.

简政放权等改革虽初见成效,但与人民群众的期待和经济社会发展要求相比,还有很大差距。一方面,政府一些该放的权还没有放,手伸得还是太长;另一方面,已出台的简政放权措施尚未完全落实到位,“中梗阻”现象大量存在,“最后一公里”还没有完全打通。当然,“最先一公里”也存在问题。这里面既有思想认识不到位、管理方式不适应的原因,也有地方和部门利益在作梗。企业和基层反映,不少审批事项只是换了个“马甲”,从明的转成暗的、从上面转到下面、从政府转到与政府有关的中介,审批服务中的各种“要件”、程序、环节等还是关卡林立。比如,稳增长必须发挥投资的关键作用,而当前投资仍处于下行状态,像重大水利工程、中西部铁路、棚户区改造、城市基础设施等,有的项目批了,中央投资也到位了,但就是迟迟开不了工,钱也花不出去。到3月底,地方国库库存余额创历史同期最高水平。其中有不作为的问题,但确实还有审批慢、审批难、环节多的问题,影响了投资进度。同时不少群众反映,办事还是存在难与慢,部门之间经常扯皮,这个章那个证还是很多,经常被折腾来折腾去。比如,商事制度改革实现了“先照后证”,有些人反映拿了照以后还是碰到层层阻碍。缺一个“证”,企业就运行不了。一些谁听了都会觉得荒唐的“证”仍然存在。其实不只是普通群众,就是今天参加会议的领导干部,离开你管的“一亩三分地”,自己或家属办事也会遇到诸如此类的不少难题。另外,从国际比较来看,世界银行发布了全球2015年营商环境报告,我国虽比上年上升3位,但在189个经济体中仍排在第90位,主要原因还是各类行政审批等管制措施太多。名目繁多、无处不在的审批“当关”、证明“围城”、公章“旅行”、公文“长征”,对个人来说,耗费的是时间和精力,增添的是烦恼和无奈;对企业来说,浪费的是人力和物力,贻误的是市场机遇;对社会来说,削弱的是公平和公正,挤压的是创业创新空间,尤其是抑制劳动生产率提高;对党和政府来说,影响的是形象和威信,挫伤的是人心民意。对此,如果不努力加以改变,束缚社会生产力的发展,损害的是全体人民的共同利益,延误的是中华民族的伟大复兴进程。

Reforms to streamline administration and delegate power have produced initial results, but they fall far short of what is expected by our people and what is needed by economic and social development. For one thing, the government, which still tends to overreach itself, has yet to relinquish power to the necessary extent. What's more, measures aimed at streamlining administration and delegating power are yet to be implemented fully. While obstruction abounds in the middle of implementation, there are also problems with both the first and the last miles in implementation, so to speak. This is partly due to the absence of the right mindset and management modality. It also has something to do with resistance from local and departmental vested interests. Businesses and members of the public complain that quite a few matters still need review and approval, only in a different form. The once explicit requirement for government approval has morphed into an implicit requirement for approval from intermediaries with government background. There remain multitudes of documents to be submitted for review and approval and a raft of procedures to go through. For many, the process of getting something done remains lengthy and difficult, because agencies are in the habit of shirking responsibilities to each other, seals and certificates of one kind or another are still a must, and there is a lot of toing and froing. Take the business registration reform for example. It is true that companies are now able to obtain a business license without first acquiring an administrative permit. But even with a license in hand, many people keep running into all sorts of difficulties, and sometimes they cannot get their businesses up and running simply because of a single missing permit, whose requirement may sound rather ridiculous. As a matter of fact, this can happen to officials present at today's conference as well as ordinary people. I believe you or your family members would encounter many of the above-mentioned problems in areas outside your purview. In the global context, according to the 2015 World Bank Doing Business Report, China ranks 90th out of 189 economies, though three places higher than last year. Too many restrictions like administrative approval are largely to blame. The ubiquitous requirement for approval, certificates, seals and documents of various types is a waste of time and energy for any individual and a source of fret and frustration. It consumes the human and material resources of a company and costs it market opportunities. It undermines justice and equity of a society, dampens entrepreneurship and innovation and, worst of all, suppresses productivity. It impairs the image and authority of a government and affects public mood and opinion. If no steps are taken to remove these constraints on social productivity, the shared interests of the entire Chinese population will suffer and the process of the great national rejuvenation of China will be held up.
在新的历史时期,深化简政放权等改革,不是权宜之计,而是既利当前又惠长远,具有多方面的重大意义和作用。实现“双中高”目标,需要靠深化简政放权等改革培育新动能。当前,世界经济复苏进程艰难曲折、复杂多变。我国经济发展进入新常态,“三期叠加”矛盾逐步凸显,到了爬坡过坎关键时期。今年一季度经济增长也面临很多困难。但我们从去年下半年以来采取的定向调控措施逐步见效,一定程度上对冲了经济下行压力。当前经济运行总体平稳,一些方面出现向好的趋势,比如调查失业率4月份有所降低,工业也在回升。但有一些方面压力还比较大,比如投资还在继续下行。我们必须采取更有力的措施,把向好的趋势巩固住,把下行的压力顶住。这从根本上讲还要靠简政放权、放管结合、优化服务。我们有信心有能力使经济运行保持在合理区间,完成今年主要目标任务,并在较长时期内保持经济中高速增长、迈向中高端水平。我们这个底气来自于我国经济发展的巨大潜力、韧性和回旋余地。只要我们坚定不移地深化改革,打造好“双引擎”,就能进一步形成更为强劲而持久的发展动力,促进中国新一轮经济“破茧成蝶”、行稳致远。构建开放型经济新体制,需要靠深化简政放权等改革提供支撑。随着国际经贸格局深刻调整和我国资源要素条件变化,我们传统的竞争优势在弱化。当前国际市场低迷,我国进出口增长压力很大。因此,我们必须加快构建开放型经济新体制,建设面向全球的高标准自贸区网络和国际化、法治化营商环境,探索实行准入前国民待遇和负面清单管理模式,培育和扩大国际合作竞争新优势。这对政府工作的核心要求,就是简政放权、放管结合、优化服务。我到上海等四个自贸区都去看过,他们最主要的措施就是简政放权,让企业能够在自贸区内迅速登记,投资项目能较快落地。提高政府治理能力,需要靠深化简政放权等改革“修枝壮干”。政府有所不为方能更好有所为。只有进一步把该放的权放掉、把不该管的事交出,集中力量把该管的事管好、该服务的服务到位,才能有效推进政府的治理创新,更好地遂民意、促发展、利和谐。 Under the new historical circumstances, reform measures such as streamlining administration and scaling back administrative power are no expediency but important steps that both deliver short-term benefits and meet long-term needs. To realize the dual objectives of maintaining a medium-high-level growth rate and moving toward a medium-high-level of development, we need to foster new growth drivers through such reform as streamlining administration and scaling back administrative power. With a fluid situation, the world economic recovery is an uphill journey. The Chinese economy has entered a state of "new normal" and a critical stage where we need to deal simultaneously with slower economic growth, difficult structural adjustments, and the impacts of previous economic stimulus measures. In the first quarter this year, the economy faced many headwinds, but thanks to the targeted regulation measures we adopted since the second half of last year, the downward pressure has been somewhat offset. Now the economic performance is stable on the whole, with positive trends seen in some aspects. For instance, the surveyed unemployment rate dropped in April and industry has been rebounding. But still we are under considerable pressure in other aspects, for example investment is further decreasing. We must roll out more effective measures to sustain the upward momentum and resist the downward pressure. Fundamentally speaking, this requires the government to streamline administration and scale back its administrative power, ease restrictions and strengthen regulation where necessary, and improve services. We have both the confidence to keep the economic performance within a proper range, and the capability to reach the main goals for this year and maintain medium-high rate and level of growth for a fairly long time to come. We are confident because the Chinese economy has big potential, strong resilience, and ample space for readjustment. As long as we stay committed to deepen reform and strengthen the twin engines for economic growth, we will build up stronger and longer lasting force for development, and through hard efforts, bring about a new round of stable and enduring growth for the Chinese economy. Streamlining administration and scaling back administrative power is also essential for building a new system for an open economy. With profound adjustment in the global economic landscape and changing conditions of resource and production factors, our traditional competitive strengths are waning. Weak demand in the international market means heavy pressure for our imports and exports to grow. Therefore, we must speed up the building of an open economy and develop a network of high-standard free trade zones open to all other countries and an international and law-based business environment. We must explore the use of a management model based on pre-establishment national treatment and a negative list, foster and expand new competitive strengths in international cooperation. To achieve these, it is essential for the government to streamline administration and scale back administrative power, lift or exercise regulation where necessary and provide better services. I visited the four free trade zones, including the one in Shanghai. A major feature of them is streamlined administration and devolved administrative power that enable companies to get registered and investment projects to get started more quickly. To improve governance capacity, the government needs to deepen such reform as streamlining administration and scaling back administrative power. The government should withdraw from certain areas as needed so as to do a better job where its role is duly required, just as "cutting off extra branches and leaves helps to make the trunk stronger", so to speak. Only when the government further delegates power where necessary, focuses on where regulation is needed, and provides adequate services, can it be possible for us to come up with new practices in governance, and better meet people's will, promote development and facilitate social harmony.
特别是推进大众创业、万众创新,需要靠深化简政放权等改革清障搭台。历史是人民创造的,国家的繁荣进步来自于人民创造力的发挥。我们党的群众路线是一切为了群众、一切依靠群众。我们提出推进“双创”,就是着眼于尊重人民群众的主体地位,充分发挥人民群众的无限创造力,让他们平等参与现代化进程、共同分享改革红利和发展成果。 To encourage all people to start their own business and make innovation, we need to streamline administration and scale back administrative power, reform that will remove obstacles and set a proper stage. History is created by the people, and a country's prosperity and progress must be driven by its people's creativity. By encouraging our people to become entrepreneurs and innovators, we hope to leverage their role as the masters of the country and their unlimited creativity so that our people can all participate in modernization and share in the benefits of reform and the fruits of development.
——推进“双创”,既是发展的动力之源,也是富民之道、公平之计、强国之策,是建设中国特色社会主义题中应有之义。让群众起来搞创业、以创业带动就业,可以不断增加收入、扩大内需,还能使其在创造财富过程中实现精神追求和人生价值。这也是逐步实现共同富裕的必由之路,因为缩小收入分配差距,仅靠“二次分配”是不够的,主要得靠“一次分配”让更多的人富起来。实践证明,哪个地方创业的环境好、创业的人数多,哪个地方的经济就充满活力、居民收入就高、贫富差距也就小。我们倡导万众创新,形成全社会的创新文化,这样创新的土壤就更为深厚,创新的动力就更为强劲,创新的效应也更为巨大。推进“双创”,不仅有利于增强国家经济“硬实力”,而且有利于提升国家“软实力”。“双创”着眼于实现广大人民群众的根本利益,有效契合了每个劳动者的内在需求。一个创业创新蔚然成风的国家,必然是昂扬向上、充满活力和希望的。 - Encouraging start-ups and innovation will boost development, increase people's wealth, promote social equity and strengthen the country. It is therefore an integral part in building socialism with Chinese characteristics. To encourage start-ups is conducive to creating more jobs, increasing people's income and boosting domestic demand. At the same time, it enables people to live a more fulfilling life. It is also the surest way to realize common prosperity for our people. Redistribution alone is not enough to narrow the income gap. Primary distribution should be the main approach to enable more people to get rich. Reality on the ground already shows that where there is a more enabling business environment and a larger number of start-ups, the local economy will be more vibrant, income higher and wealth gap smaller. We now encourage the general public to make innovation. This is intended to foster a culture of innovation in our society. In such a society, we will have more fertile soil for innovation, a stronger push for innovation and a greater impact from innovation. To encourage start-ups and innovation by the public will enhance not only the "hard power" of the national economy but also the soft power of the country. It serves the fundamental interests of the public and meets the needs of each and every worker. A country where start-ups and innovation thrive must be one of promise, energy and progress.
——推进“双创”,不仅限于个人和新生企业,现有企业包括大企业也要通过不断创业创新来保持活力和竞争力。看看那些长盛不衰的企业,哪一个不是与时俱进、经历过多次创业创新的?否则,它的事业早就可能走到尽头了。近年来,有些大企业积极顺应互联网发展和消费个性化趋势,对管理模式进行再造,将传统的层级管控组织重塑为新型创业创新平台,让员工成为创客,并将平台向外部开放,创客在这个平台上孕育产生的“奇思妙想”,既可以自己用,也可以与外边合作开发,使企业变成一个大的创新资源聚集之地。这样,带动的配套中小企业更多了,创新能力更强了,产品更丰富了。企业推进创业创新是大有可为的。 - Encouraging start-ups and innovation is not just relevant for individuals and newly established companies. In fact, well-established companies, including the bigger ones, should also keep their vitality and competitiveness through entrepreneurship and innovation. Just have a look at those successful companies with staying power. With no exception, they are the ones who keep up with the times and constantly innovate and forge ahead. Otherwise, they would have closed down a long time ago. In recent years some big companies have recognized the trend of Internet development and personalized consumption, and remade their management model. They have reshaped the traditional hierarchical management model into new platforms for their employees to pursue entrepreneurship and innovation. Such platforms are also open to the society. Employees can apply the novel ideas nurtured on such platforms in their own work or with a third party. As such, the company has thus become a big hub of resources for innovation. It can support more small- and medium-sized companies, boasts stronger capacity for innovation and can deliver more diverse products. There is a great deal that businesses can do in tapping their entrepreneurship and innovation.
——推进“双创”,我们有得天独厚的条件。我国有13亿多人口、9亿劳动力,目前劳动年龄人口平均受教育年限达到10年、高于世界平均水平,新增劳动力达到13年、接近中等发达国家平均水平,人力资源转化为人力资本的潜力巨大。同时,我们还有7000多万市场主体,其中有1800多万家企业。广大人民群众和市场主体拥有强烈的创业创新愿望,但仍有不少有形无形的枷锁束缚着他们的手脚。必须通过深化简政放权等改革,破枷清障、铺路搭桥,使他们轻装前进、不断发展壮大。我们已就深化上海自贸区改革进行了部署,吸引了大批国内创业者以及金融企业和中介机构,不少外商也跟进了。广东、天津、福建三个自贸区的体制机制创新也在加快推进。这些自贸区探索的经验要及时复制推广,使我国拥有更好的营商环境,是外资的最佳选择地。 - We have unique strength in encouraging start-ups and innovation. China has over 1.3 billion people, including a 900-million-strong workforce. The average education level of our working-age population is 10 years, higher than the world average. The education level of our newly added workforce has reached 13 years, approaching the average of medium developed countries. There is huge untapped potential for human resources to be turned into human capital. Meanwhile, we also have over 70 million market entities, including over 18 million companies. Our people and market entities have strong desire for entrepreneurship and innovation, but many have been held back by both tangible and invisible restrictions. We therefore must deepen reform to streamline administration and scale back administrative power. This will get rid of the obstacles and enable our people and market entities to travel light and grow stronger. We have mapped out reform plans for the Shanghai Pilot Free Trade Zone, which has attracted a large number of domestic entrepreneurs, financial companies, and intermediaries, as well as foreign companies. Speedy progress is also being made in institutional reform in the free trade zones in Guangdong, Tianjin and Fujian. Experience gathered in these free trade zones must be timely applied to the rest of the country so that China, with an improved business environment, stands out as the most appealing destination for foreign investment.
深化简政放权等改革不仅是基于两年多来的有效实践,而且是基于历史的启示,特别是我国37年来改革开放内在成功逻辑的启示。中华民族几千年文明史中有很多优秀文化,值得我们借鉴。我在政府工作报告里讲“大道至简,有权不可任性”,代表们是赞成的。《礼记》“礼运篇”说,“大道之行也,天下为公”。“大道至简”中的“简”字是什么意思呢?《论语》“雍也篇”中讲,要“居敬行简”,可解释为心里牵挂着百姓,做事有敬畏,但行为是“简”的,不扰民、不烦民,这是政府应该做的。但同时又讲,不能“居简行简”,可以解释说,如果心里没有百姓,已经很“简”了,再去“行简”,那就太“简”、不负责任、没有法度了。纵观中国历史,凡盛世往往都用“居敬行简”的办法,轻徭薄赋、让百姓休养生息。而那些衰亡的王朝都是烦民扰民多,所谓苛政猛于虎。党的十一届三中全会以来,我国之所以取得举世瞩目的伟大成就,走的是改革开放之路,“大道至简”与此是相契合的。其核心内容是放开搞活,有力激发蕴藏在人民群众之中的创造活力。拿当年农村改革来说,地还是那些地,人还是那些人,就是因为实行家庭承包制,给农民生产经营自主权,很快就解决了温饱问题。当然放权不是不管,而是既管也服务。几千年的中国历史和37年的改革开放实践证明,管多就会管死,只有放开才能搞活,从而解放和发展社会生产力,使人民生活水平不断提高,政府施政的要义在于以敬民之心行简政之道。 The progress achieved in the past two years fully testifies to the effect of deepening reform through streamlining administration and delegating government power. In fact, we have learnt about the importance of such reform from the course of China's history, especially from the success of the reform and opening-up program over the past 37 years. The several-thousand-year-long Chinese civilization provides useful references. In this year's Report on the Work of the Government, I quoted an old Chinese saying that "good governance should be simple in its exercise" and stated that "power should not be used arbitrarily". It was echoed by the deputies to the National People's Congress. My inspiration comes from the ancient Book of Rites, which teaches us that "good governance, when exercised, brings the world together as one community (See Chapter: the Conveyance of Rituals)." And according to the Analects of Confucius, one should "hold the people in reverence and be simple in the measures he takes" when governing the people (see Chapter: Yong Ye). In other words, the job of the government is to keep the people's interests at heart and hold itself accountable to the people at all times while minimizing its intervention and interference in people's lives. The book then goes on to say that "it would be rather unacceptable to be simple both in the way that the government relates to the people and in the measures that it takes." Put simply, if the government exercises power by treating the people as nothing more than just simple subjects, it would be irresponsible and even disrespectful of moral standards. Historically, the prosperity of a dynasty usually came from good simple governance, from freeing the people of levies and taxes to allow them to rest and recover, whereas the decline or demise of a dynasty was usually brought by doing just the opposite, as a bad government, as an old Chinese saying goes, "is more dreadful than a wild tiger." The reform and opening-up process, which began following the Third Plenum of the 11th CPC Central Committee, has led China to remarkable progress. This is one recent example of how good governance, simple in exercise, has achieved the purpose of lifting restrictions and unleashing people's ingenuity by way of reform and opening-up. For instance, rural land reform was conducted in the 1980s with the introduction of the household contract responsibility system, which gave farmers full autonomy in the operation of their land and quickly improved their livelihood. That being said, the delegation of power does not mean zero regulation, but rather better service on the basis of better regulation. China's history over the past several thousand years as well as its 37 years of reform and opening-up shows that over-regulation stifles progress. Only by removing restrictions could we spark creativity, unleash and expand productivity and steadily raise people's living standards. To sum up, the key to good governance is respect for the people and the principle of simplicity in the exercise of government power.
当前和今后一个时期,深化行政体制改革、转变政府职能总的要求是:简政放权、放管结合、优化服务协同推进,即“放、管、服”三管齐下,推动大众创业、万众创新,充分发挥中央和地方两个积极性,促进经济社会持续健康发展,加快建设与社会主义市场经济体制和中国特色社会主义事业发展相适应的法治政府、创新政府、廉洁政府和服务型政府,逐步实现政府治理能力现代化。为此,我们要善于借鉴汲取“大道至简”等优秀文化传统,并结合新的时代要求予以发扬光大,放手让一切劳动、知识、技术、管理、资本的活力竞相迸发,让一切创造社会财富的源泉充分涌流,让所有社会成员各得其所、各展其能、机会公平,打造经济发展新引擎,开辟社会进步新天地,营造团结和谐新气象,使我们的国家始终充满生机与活力。 Our overall goal of deepening administrative reform and transforming government functions is to streamline administration and delegate power, combine power delegation with effective oversight, and improve service all in a coordinated way. Such a three-pronged approach will encourage mass entrepreneurship and innovation and mobilize the initiative at the central and local levels. It will help promote sustained and healthy economic and social development, cultivate a law-based, innovative, clean and service-oriented government at a faster pace to meet the requirement of the socialist market economy and socialism with Chinese characteristics, and eventually build up modern governance capacity. In this process, it is important to learn from the wisdom and fine traditions of our ancestors, such as the belief that "good governance should be simple in exercise", and apply it in the modern-day context to let labor, knowledge, technology, managerial expertise and capital play their full part in invigorating the market, open up all sources of social wealth and give all members of the society an equal opportunity to discover and realize their full potential. By so doing, we will be able to build new engines of growth, create fresh prospects for social progress, unity and harmony and ensure that our nation will always be a place full of vitality and dynamism.
二、推动简政放权向纵深发展,进一步释放市场活力和社会创造力 II. Push for greater depth in streamlining administration and delegating power to further unleash market vitality and public creativity
深化简政放权,既要有勇气,也要有智慧。改革进行到现在,要更多触及深层次矛盾、触动利益的“奶酪”,还要改变原来习惯的管理方式,很不容易。何况,简政放权实质是政府的自身革命,自我削权限权就像割自己的肉,更为困难。目前这一改革如同顶风逆水搏激流,不仅不进则退,慢进也会退。为了国家发展和人民福祉,为了使经济运行保持在合理区间,实现经济社会持续健康发展,我们必须以壮士断腕的决心和勇气,着力把简政放权加快向前推进。坚决把该“放”的彻底放开、该“减”的彻底减掉、该“清”的彻底清除,不留尾巴、不留死角、不搞变通。同时,要做好深化简政放权的统筹谋划,因地制宜,讲究策略和方法,确保改革顺利推进和取得更大成效。 To deepen this reform takes both courage and wisdom. The reform has come to a stage where more deep-lying problems and vested interests will be targeted and the accustomed style of management will be changed. This is by no means an easy task. What makes it even more difficult is that as a self-imposed reform by the government to shed and restrain its own power, to streamline administration and delegate power is just like taking a knife to one's own flesh. This is like sailing upstream against strong headwind. We would get pushed back if no progress is made, or simply if progress is not made fast enough. To ensure national development and people's well-being and sustained and sound economic and social development and that the economy continues to perform in a proper range, we must speed up this reform with utmost determination and courage. We must ensure the thoroughness of the reform without skipping or watering down any step or leaving any issue unaddressed. It is also important to design the reform measures properly and choose the approach and method wisely in light of specific circumstances to ensure smooth progress and greater effectiveness of the reform.
深化简政放权,要注重把握好三点:一要开门搞改革。民之所望,施政所向。人民群众对审批之弊感受最深,对改什么、如何改最有发言权。我们要把主要由政府部门“端菜”变为更多由人民群众“点菜”,以群众需求为导向、从反映强烈的突出问题入手,确定深化改革的重点、措施和路径,更为精准、更加精细地清除阻碍创新发展的“堵点”、影响干事创业的“痛点”和监管服务的“盲点”。二要上下联动。上下同欲者胜。在简政放权这场重大改革中,上下必须协同推进。上级政府在设计改革方案时,要重视听取下级特别是基层政府的意见,使改革举措更具可行性、操作性。下级政府在贯彻执行上级要求的同时,要结合自身实际制定好落实的具体办法。除涉及国家安全、生态安全和公众健康等重大公共利益事项外,其他的审批事项原则上要以取消为主。确需下放的,各部门要协调同步,把整个审批链全下放,不能你放他不放、责放权不放。只要有一个部门不放,企业创业和投资项目就整个运作不起来。因此,有关部门对确需保留的审批事项,不论是前置还是后置,都要有时限要求,而且要联网、要公开。事项下放到哪一级,要根据地方各级政府的职责来确定,不能层层往下甩包袱,最后导致基层接不住。三要由人民群众和实践评判改革成效。群众和企业满意不满意,实践效果如何,是检验简政放权成效的根本标准。不能光看你下了多大功夫,数字上取消下放了多少,关键要看群众和企业办起事来是不是快了、花钱少了、成本低了。 In deepening this reform, three things are vital. First, the reform must be a transparent process. Our policy must meet the needs of the people. It is the people who feel most deeply about the problems in our review and approval system and know the best what needs to be changed and how reform should proceed. Instead of simply asking the people to accept government decisions, the government should give the people the right to decide. It is their needs and what they feel most strongly about that should be the main focus of the reform. And steps and pathways of the reform should be formulated accordingly. We need more targeted and detailed measures to remove the "choking points" in innovation, "stumbling blocks" in getting things done and "blind spots" in regulation and service. Second, the reform must be carried out in unison between the higher and lower levels of government. As an old Chinese saying goes, "An army wins that unite all its ranks around the same spirit." In the context of this major reform, different levels of government must work closely together. For governments at higher levels, they need to listen to the suggestions from lower levels, the grassroots level in particular, to make the reform plan more feasible and operable. For governments at lower levels, while following through on the instructions from above, it is important to come up with concrete implementation steps suited to the actual circumstances. Except for matters concerning major public interests such as national security, environmental security and public health, the priority should be to reduce matters requiring approval. In cases where power delegation is duly required, different departments need to check with each other to ensure that the entire approval chain is delegated. No department shall cling to the power or simply pass on the responsibility without giving up the final say. Otherwise, any single department that refuses to delegate its power could completely stall a business start-up or investment program. That is why there must be a deadline for any necessary approval, be it before or after registration. The departments must link up their approval system and make relevant information known to the public. To which level should power be delegated shall be determined on the basis of the due responsibilities of local governments instead of passing the buck and simply leaving it to the grassroots-level government which may not be capable of handling the delegated matters. Third, it is up to the public to evaluate the effectiveness of the reform. Ultimately, it is the level of satisfaction of the people and companies and the actual results that should serve as the criteria for our reform efforts. The result should be measured not only by how hard we work or how many approval items we have abolished or delegated, but rather by if it is easier for our people and businesses to get things done with less time, money and energy.
关于今年的简政放权工作,最近国务院常务会议已作出全面部署,各地区各部门要认真贯彻执行。为确保落实到位,必须突出重点、明确时限、扎实推进。 Solid efforts should be made to promote streamlined administration and delegate power this year with clearly-set priorities and deadlines.
(一)再砍掉一批审批事项,切实降低就业创业创新门槛。5月底前,全面完成国务院部门非行政许可审批事项清理工作,今后不再保留这一审批类别。年底前,再取消一批“含金量”高的行政审批、投资项目核准及前置审批、资质资格许可认定、评比达标表彰等事项。清理取消中央指定地方实施的行政审批事项,年底前取消200项以上,为地方放权进一步打开空间。 (I) Cut down still more review and approval items to earnestly lower the threshold to employment, entrepreneurship and innovation. By the end of May, we will finish sorting out all items requiring non-governmental review and approval by the State Council departments and will thereafter revoke such review and approval category. By the end of the year, we will further revoke some items greater in "value" to society, such as administrative review and approval, review and preliminary approval of investment project, qualification and credential review and certification as well as making performance evaluation, reaching standards, and awarding commendations. By removing by the end of the year over 200 administrative review and approval items as previously designated by the central government for implementation by local governments, we will open greater space for local governments to delegate power.
(二)再砍掉一批审批中介事项,切实拆除“旋转门”、“玻璃门”。要抓紧制定并公布国务院部门行政审批中介服务事项清单,精简中介评估事项。加快摘掉中介机构的“红顶”,与行政审批部门彻底脱钩,斩断利益链条。这里要明确,我们国家中介服务业与发达国家相比还有很大差距,发展空间很大,是新的经济增长点。清理规范中介服务,不是要限制这个行业发展,而是要通过营造公平竞争环境,强化服务职能,使其更好更快发展。 (II) Cut down still more review and approval items by intermediaries to truly dismantle the so-called "revolving doors" and "glass doors". We should speed up efforts to formulate and announce a list of intermediary services of administrative review and approval by State Council departments while simplifying procedures for intermediary evaluation. We should completely delink the intermediaries from administrative review and approval agencies so as to cut off the chain of interests between the two. Obviously, China's intermediary services fall far short of those in developed countries, an area that promises great potential as a new growth point. Sorting out and regulating intermediary services should not result in restricting their development. Rather, it is aimed at promoting their better and faster development by creating a level playing field and strengthening their functions of services.
(三)再砍掉一批审批过程中的繁文缛节,切实方便企业和群众办事。9月底前,国务院部门要简化行政审批流程,压缩前置审批环节并公开时限,推行并联审批和网上审批,着力解决环节多、时间长、随意性大等问题。加快建设信息共享、覆盖全国的投资项目在线审批监管平台。6月底前实现部门间“横向联通”,年底前实现中央和地方“纵向贯通”。 (III) Cut down still more red tape in the review and approval process to help the companies and individuals involved. By the end of September, State Council departments should simplify administrative review and approval procedures, reducing the preliminary procedures and making relevant deadlines public, promote integrated and online review and approval, and effectively address problems such as overly complicated and time-consuming procedures and arbitrary conduct in work. We should speed up the establishment of a nationwide information-sharing online platform for the review and oversight of investment projects. It will start operation of connecting all central government departments by the end of June, and of connecting the central and local governments by the end of the year.

(四)再砍掉一批企业登记注册和办事的关卡,切实清除创业创新路障。继续推进工商注册便利化,年内实现“三证合一”、“一照一码”。这是对能否破除部门利益的一个重要检验。我到地方去调研,有的已实现了“三号”变“一码”,但是只能在当地实施,其他地方还不认,遇到不少困难。要尽快在全国实现“一照一码”,推动全国市场实现统一公开透明和公平竞争。继续创新优化登记方式,实行“一址多照”和“一照多址”。取消没有法律法规依据、不必要的后置办证事项。要通过深化商事制度改革,努力使新增企业数持续保持较快增长,新企业活跃度不断提高,为稳增长、保就业奠定基础。

(IV) Cut down still more registration procedures and other formalities required of enterprises to clear way for entrepreneurship and innovation. To further facilitate business registration, we will, by the end of the year, complete the three-in-one reform by integrating the business license, certificate of organization codes and certificate of taxation registration, and introduce a new social credit code to the enterprises. This is an important test to our ability to break the chain of departmental interests and form a unified nationwide information platform. I have found out from inspection tours that the new social credit code has been in use in some places, but yet to be recognized by other places. Though still difficult to proceed, we should redouble efforts to popularize the new social credit code across the country, so as to put in place a unified, open and transparent national marketplace for all to join in fair competition. We should continue to innovate the registration modality, allowing two or more companies to register at the same address and one company to set up branches while getting registered just once. Such practice as applying for permit after receiving the license, which is unnecessary and required by no law, will be removed. We should deepen business system reform to ensure sustained growth of new companies along with their business dynamism, thus laying a good foundation for a steadily growing economy and employment.
(五)再砍掉一批不合法不合规不合理的收费,切实减轻企业和群众负担。收费必须规范。去年以来我们采取了一系列定向调控措施,包括对小微企业和“三农”等减税、定向降准、不对称降息等,向市场发出了积极信号,实践证明这些措施是有效的。但是如果各种收费减不下来,其它措施就是再多,也会被冲减甚至抵消掉。5月底前,要对收费专项清理规范工作作出部署。年底前,没有法律法规依据且未按规定批准、越权设立的收费基金项目,一律取消。擅自提高征收标准、扩大征收范围的,一律停止执行。属于政府提供普遍公共服务或一般性管理职能的行政事业性收费,不适应经济发展的政府性基金,没有法定依据的行政审批中介收费,一律取消。超过服务成本的收费和有较大结余的基金,一律降低征收标准。 (V) Cut down still more unlawful, unregulated and unreasonable fees to truly lessen the burden on companies and individuals. The collection of fees must be regulated. Since last year, we have adopted a number of targeted regulation measures, including tax cuts for small and micro businesses and for agriculture, rural areas and farmers, targeted reduction of the bank required reserve ratio, and asymmetrical reduction of interest rates, thus sending a positive signal to the market. These measures have proven effective. But if the fees remain uncut, then the benefit of measures, no matter how numerous we adopt, would be undermined or even canceled out. By the end of May, we should put in place the special plan to clear up and regulate fees. And by the end of the year, we will make sure that all the fees and funds that have been created and approved without proper authorization and legal basis be completely revoked and practices of arbitrarily increasing or expanding fees be stopped. Administrative fees for ordinary public services or general management functions offered by the government, government-run funds no longer suited for economic development, and intermediary fees for administrative review and approval without legal basis will all be eliminated. And fees that exceed the cost of services and funds with a considerable surplus balance should see their contributions lowered.
政府在减权放权的同时,要以刚性的制度来管权限权,厉行法治,依法行政,建设法治政府。要坚持职权法定原则,加快建立“三个清单”,划定政府与市场、企业、社会的权责边界。以权力清单明确政府能做什么,“法无授权不可为”;以责任清单明确政府该怎么管市场,“法定职责必须为”;以负面清单明确对企业的约束有哪些,“法无禁止即可为”。通过建立“三个清单”,依法管好“看得见的手”,用好“看不见的手”,挡住“寻租的黑手”。今年,要基本完成省级政府部门权力清单的公布,研究推行国务院部门权力清单和责任清单制度并开展试点。 While reducing and delegating powers, the government should step up the management and restriction of its powers through a strong system, introducing rule of law, enhancing law-based administration, and making itself a law-based government. Honoring the principle that functions and powers are set by law, we should set up the "three lists" quickly, clearly defining the boundary of power and responsibility between the government on the one hand and the market, enterprise and society on the other. With the list of power, the government will know clearly what it can do, and what it cannot do when it comes to things outside the mandate of law. With the list of responsibility, the government will know clearly how it should manage the market, and what it must do as required by law. And with the negative list, companies will know clearly the restrictions they are subjected to, and what they can do outside the confines of law. With the three lists in place, it is easier for us to control the "visible hand" in accordance with law, leverage the "invisible hand", and block the "rent-seeking hand". Within this year, we should basically complete the publication of the power list for the government departments at the provincial level, and conduct studies and pilot programs on the power list and responsibility list for the State Council departments.
三、创新和加强政府管理,使市场和社会活而有序 III. Strive for dynamic and orderly market and society by innovating and strengthening governance
深化行政体制改革、转变政府职能,不仅要取消和下放权力,还要改善和加强政府管理,提高政府效能,增强依法全面履职能力,使市场和社会既充满活力又规范有序,促进经济持续健康发展和社会公平正义。 Deepening administrative reform and transforming government functions require not only the removal and delegating of powers, but also improvement and strengthening of governance, with greater government efficiency and stronger government capacity for comprehensively performing duties in accordance with law, so as to ensure both dynamism and order in the market and society, and deliver sustained and healthy economic growth and just and equitable society.
加强市场监管,为各类市场主体营造公平竞争的发展环境,是当务之急。目前,我国市场经济秩序还很不规范。商事制度等改革之后,新的市场主体大批涌现,如果监管跟不上,市场秩序混乱现象会加剧,“劣币驱逐良币”的扭曲效应会放大,严重制约诚实守信经营者和新的市场主体发展。我到地方调研,不少企业包括台商、外商反映,侵犯知识产权、坑蒙拐骗等行为,企业自身难以解决,如果政府把这些问题管住了,企业的“心头之痛”就解除了。因此,在大量减少审批后,政府要更多转为事中事后监管,切实把市场管住、管好。这是政府管理方式的重大转变,难度更大、要求更高。各级政府及其工作人员要积极适应这一转变,切实履行好管理职责。 The pressing task now is to strengthen market regulation, and create a level playing field for market entities of various types. Currently, China's market economy is far from well-regulated. A large number of new market players have emerged after the reform of the business system. Should market regulation fall short, market disorder could intensify, and the distorted effect of the "bad money driving out the good" would get amplified, and the development of honest and the new market players would be adversely affected. I was told in my local field trips by many, including business people from Taiwan and foreign countries, that companies alone can not resolve such market irregularities as IPR infringements, cheating, swindling and counterfeiting. If the government gets them under control, companies would be relieved of their "pain in the heart". Therefore, after significantly reducing the number of review and approval items, the government should get to the ongoing and ex-post oversight of the market. This represents a major shift of government management style which is harder and more challenging. Governments at all levels, as well as their employees, should adapt themselves to such a shift and earnestly perform their duties of governance.
要转变监管理念,强化法治、公平、责任意识。现在我们在市场监管上,一方面,各种检查太多,随意性太大,企业疲于应付,还有不少寻租行为。另一方面,该监管的还没有管或没有管住、管好。政府监管要“居敬行简”,不扰民、不烦民但法度不缺,制定科学有效的市场监管规则、流程和标准,向社会公示,使市场主体明晓界限、守法经营,并缩小监管者自由裁量权。同时,要依法开展监管,维护和保障市场公平竞争秩序,当好“裁判员”,不犯规的不去烦扰,轻微犯规的及时亮“黄牌”警告,严重犯规的马上“红牌”罚下场。当然,裁判要履职尽责、公平公正执法,不能该吹哨的不吹,更不能吹“黑哨”。监管者必须受监督,要公开信息,健全并严格执行监管责任制和责任追究制。 We need to improve the supervision approach to place more emphasis on the rule of law, fairness and accountability. The current practice of market supervision entails inspection of too many kinds without clearly defined rules, adding burdens to enterprises and creating room for rent seeking. On the other hand, market behaviors that should be subject to supervision by the government are left in benign neglect. The right approach to supervision requires both strictness and simplicity. The government should minimize intervention in people's lives and put in place a sound legal framework and proper and effective rules, procedures and standards for market supervision and publicize them fully so that market players will know where the line is drawn and carefully observe it. By so doing, the discretionary power of regulators will be slashed. Equally important, the government must carry out supervision in accordance with the law, maintain and safeguard the market order for fair competition. To use a sports metaphor, the government should be a good "referee" - leaving those well-behaved players alone while giving a timely yellow-card warning for minor fouls or a prompt red card for serious foul play. Needless to say, a referee should perform his duty faithfully and enforce the rules in a fair and just manner instead of being negligent or engaging in match-fixing. Regulators must be subject to supervision as well. Relevant information should be made public and a well-defined accountability system for supervision must be enforced.
要创新监管机制和监管方式,提高监管效能。这两年,各地积极探索实践,积累了很多行之有效的经验和做法。要继续推进监管创新。一是实行综合监管和执法。抓紧建立统一的监管平台,把部门间关联的监管事项都放到平台上来,同时清理整合各类行政执法队伍,推进跨部门、跨行业综合执法,让几个“大盖帽”合成一个“大盖帽”,形成监管和执法合力,避免交叉重复或留空白死角。监管和执法的结果应公示,并留底备查,阳光是治理监管和执法不公最有效的手段。二是推广随机抽查监管。有些地方和行业把企业和监管部门人员放在同一平台上,通过两次摇号,按一定比例对企业进行抽检,随机确定检查人员,企业有了压力,也减少了监管部门寻租机会。要抓紧推广这一做法。三是推进“智能”监管。积极运用大数据、云计算、物联网等信息化手段,探索实行“互联网+监管”模式。加快部门之间、上下之间信息资源的开放共享、互联互通,打破“信息孤岛”。推进统一的社会信用体系建设,建立信息披露和诚信档案制度、失信联合惩戒机制和黑名单制度,让失信者一处违规、处处受限。四是强化社会监督。畅通投诉举报渠道,对举报者要给予有足够吸引力的奖励并严格保密。强化企业首负责任,通过倒逼形成层层追溯、相互监督机制。加强行业自律,鼓励同行监督。充分发挥媒体舆论监督作用。无数双眼睛盯着每一个角落,就能织就监督的“恢恢天网”。 We need to innovate supervision mechanisms and explore new ways to make supervision more effective. After active experiment over the past two years, local governments have gathered plenty of good experience and practices. Continuous efforts must be made to advance innovation in supervision. First, we need to put in place an integrated system for supervision and law enforcement. We should push ahead the building of a unified supervision platform that covers the entire scope of supervision by all government departments involved. Meanwhile, we need to consolidate administrative law enforcement teams to conduct cross-department and cross-sector law enforcement. The responsibilities of different law enforcement agencies can be merged into one to form synergy in supervision and law enforcement and avoid either overlapping responsibilities or blank spot. The result of supervision and law enforcement should be made public and put on record. After all, the most effective way to deal with unfair supervision and law enforcement is to expose them in the sun light. Second, we will carry out more ad hoc inspections. In some places and sectors, enterprises and regulators involved in inspections are now randomly selected through separate lotteries conducted on the same platform. We will popularize such practices across the country as they both increase pressure on the enterprises and narrow the space for rent seeking. Third, we will advance "smart" supervision. We should actively employ big data, cloud computing, the Internet of Things and other information technology to explore an "Internet Plus supervision" model. We should speed up information sharing and connectivity among departments at different levels to remove "isolated islands of information", so to speak. We will put in place a unified social credit system, an information disclosure and credit filing system, and an integrated punishment and black list mechanism so that one dishonest behavior will result in restrictions at every turn. Fourth, we need to strengthen public supervision. We need to have unimpeded channels for public complaints and tip-offs. We should give sufficient incentives to whistle-blowers and keep their identity confidential. Enterprises should bear the primary responsibility in the mutual supervision mechanism that can trace problems to the source. Industry self-regulation and peer review should be strengthened. Media scrutiny should be encouraged. All these efforts will help weave a tight net of supervision where nothing can escape public attention.
四、优化政府服务,更好满足人民群众和经济社会发展需求 IV. Improve government services to better meet the need of the people and that of economic and social development
全心全意为人民服务,是我们党的根本宗旨,让老百姓过上好日子,是人民政府的天职。这几年,各级政府在加强服务方面花了不少力气,但公共产品短缺、公共服务薄弱等问题依然突出。加快解决这一问题,可以有效提升政府服务能力和水平,也可以增加有效投资、有利于顶住经济下行压力。这要靠深化简政放权等改革破除障碍,把市场机制作用发挥好。改革的实效也要从增加公共产品、公共服务方面来体现。我们要努力通过提供比较充裕的公共产品、优质高效的公共服务,使创业创新过程更顺畅、经济发展之路更通畅、人民群众心情更舒畅,使整个社会更温馨、更和谐、更有凝聚力和活力。 It falls upon the government to create conditions for its people to lead a decent life. Despite the tremendous efforts over the years made by governments at all levels, public goods and services remain inadequate. Promptly addressing this challenge will help bring about notable improvement in the capacity and quality of government services and an increase in effective investment, which will help counter the downward pressure on the economy. This calls for deepening reform, such as further streamlining administration and delegating power to remove obstacles and better leverage the role of market forces. The result of the reform can be measured by the rate of increase in public goods and services. By providing sufficient public goods and quality, efficient public services, we want to make entrepreneurship and innovation easier, economic development smoother, our people happier and our society more caring, harmonious, cohesive and dynamic.
(一)为大众创业、万众创新提供全方位服务。“双创”有利于扩大就业,稳增长也是为了保就业。一是加强政策支持。在降税清费减负基础上,要研究出台一批扶持创业创新特别是小微企业的政策措施。对众创空间、创新工场等各种孵化器,要在租金、场地、税费等方面给予支持。发挥财政资金杠杆作用,采取贴息、补助、创投基金等方式,撬动社会投入;完善投融资机制,大力发展风险投资、天使投资等投资方式,探索新型商业模式,多措并举帮助创业者解决资金困难问题。二是提供平台综合服务。创业创新需要什么服务,政府就要在这个平台上提供什么服务。强化政策、法律和信息咨询服务。加强知识产权保护。做好对大学生的就业创业指导服务和农民工的职业技能培训。这些服务有的政府部门可以直接提供,有的可以向专业机构购买,有的还要鼓励中介组织等积极参与。三是服务要便捷高效。群众创业创新不易,各级政府及其工作人员要设身处地为他们着想,提供更加人性化、更富人情味的服务,态度要好、手续要少、速度要快。继续办好政务服务中心和办事大厅,实行“一个窗口受理、一站式审批、一条龙服务”,规范流程、明确标准、缩短时间。 (I) We will provide all-round services for mass entrepreneurship and innovation. This will help create jobs, which is also the aim of promoting stable growth. First, we need to strengthen policy support. We are looking at a series of policy measures in support of entrepreneurship and innovation with a focus on small and micro businesses on top of cutting taxes, slashing fees and reducing corporate burdens. We will provide support in terms of rent, office space, taxes and fees to various incubators such as makerspaces and Innovation Works. We will make government funds available to leverage private input through discounts, subsidies and venture capital funds. We will improve investment and financing mechanisms, develop venture capital, angel investment and other forms of investment, explore new business models and take multi-pronged steps to help entrepreneurs meet their financial needs. Second, we will put in place a platform for comprehensive services on which all the needs for entrepreneurship and innovation will be provided for. We will step up policy, legal and consulting services, better protect intellectual property rights and provide guidance to employment and entrepreneurship for college graduates and vocational training for rural migrant workers. Some of these services can be provided by the government directly, some can be purchased from specialized agencies and some others require the active involvement of intermediaries. Third, we will provide accessible and efficient services. It is already demanding for people to start up companies and make innovations. Governments at all levels and their staff must put themselves in the shoes of entrepreneurs and innovators, provide more tailor-made, thoughtful and speedy services with streamlined procedures. We will continue to offer one-window, one-stop and one-package services at government service centers, set up clearly defined procedures and standards, and shorten the approval time.
(二)为人民群众提供公平、可及的公共服务。增加公共产品和公共服务供给,政府不能唱“独角戏”,要创新机制,尽可能利用社会力量,并搞好规划、制定标准、促进竞争、加强监管。凡是企业和社会组织有积极性、适合承担的,都要通过委托、承包、采购等方式交给他们承担;确需政府参与的,要实行政府和社会资本合作模式。即使是基本公共服务,也要尽量这样做。政府办事要尽可能不养人、不养机构,追求不花钱能办事或少花钱多办事的效果。这也有利于形成公共服务发展新机制,促进民办教育、医疗和养老等服务业发展。我们既要努力提供充裕的公共服务,更要增强公共服务的公平性和可及性。要创新服务方式,最大程度地便民利民。有些服务事项,最好能让群众不出门,通过网上办理、代办服务、上门服务等方式来完成。如果需要群众直接来,要提前告知各种要求,力争来一两次就办成。对要求群众出具的各种“证明”,要清理规范,能免的就免、能合的就合,确实需要的,尽可能通过部门之间信息共享和业务协同来核查解决。各级政府及其工作人员都要有这样一个服务理念,就是宁可自己多辛苦,也要让群众少跑路。 (II) We will provide fair and accessible public services to the people. Providing more public goods and services is not the one-man show of the government. We should introduce institutional innovation, use all the possible support of the society and make sure there is sound planning, standards, competition and stronger oversight. Enterprises and public organizations should be given the responsibility in whatever areas they have the interest and expertise, by way of authorization, contracting and purchase. For those services where government involvement is truly needed, there should be public-private partnership. This should also be applied whenever possible to the provision of basic public services. The government should try its best not to add staff or institutions and strive to do more with less. This will be conducive to the formation of a new public services mechanism and to the growth of privately-run service sectors in education, health care and old-age care. While working hard to provide sufficient public services, we should improve the fairness and accessibility of such services. We need to innovate the ways of delivering services to bring the greatest possible convenience and benefit to the people. It will be ideal if some services can be handled online, or by proxy or delivered to the doorstep which saves people the time of visiting government bureaus. When people do need to go to government bureaus, they should be notified of all the requirements beforehand and be able to complete the procedure with one or two visits. As for the various kinds of "certificates" people are asked to produce, they should be kept at a minimum, and they should be standardized and combined whenever possible. Those that are truly necessary should be verified through information sharing and coordination between government departments. Government at all levels and their staff must be committed to providing the greatest convenience for the people even if it means more work for themselves.
(三)履行好政府保基本的兜底责任。我国还是一个发展中国家,全国有7000多万低保人口、7000多万贫困人口。虽然我们建立了覆盖全民的社会保障制度,但保障水平还比较低。现在不少地方财政吃紧,但再困难也要保障好困难群众的基本生活。底线兜住了,也可为创业者特别是青年人创业解除后顾之忧,即使失败了也有机会再次创业。当前,要更加关注困难群体的就业、社保、教育、医疗、养老等问题,加快城市棚户区和农村危旧房改造。需要指出的是,提供基本公共服务、保障和改善民生不能脱离实际,要与经济社会发展水平相适应。 (III) We will make sure the government fulfill its responsibility to provide subsistence assistance for all. China is still a developing country with more than 70 million people living on the basic living allowances and roughly the same number of people living below the poverty line. Though we have established a social security system that covers the whole population, the level of welfare provided remains low, and many local governments have to struggle with fiscal crunch. Yet no difficulty should weaken our resolve to meet the basic needs of those people in poverty. When subsistence is guaranteed, business starters, especially the young people, will be free to pursue their ambitions and have something to fall back on even if they fail. We should pay more attention to the employment, social welfare, education, health care and old-age needs of groups in difficulty and accelerate the transformation of urban rundown areas and dilapidated houses in rural areas. Nonetheless, it should be pointed out that efforts to provide basic public services and improve people's livelihood should be based on reality and commensurate with the level of economic and social development in our country.
五、抓好组织领导,确保各项改革举措落地生根 V. Strengthen planning and leadership and ensure sound implementation of all reform measures
深化行政体制改革、转变政府职能,是一场深刻革命,涉及面广、难度大,必须按照中央统一部署,切实加强领导,周密组织,使改革积极稳妥向前推进。 To deepen administrative system reform and transform government functions is a profound revolution that covers extensive areas and involves many difficulties. We must strengthen leadership and planning to move the reform forward in an active yet prudent manner.
第一,强化机制、明确责任。国务院将继续着力推进简政放权、放管结合、优化服务工作。各地区各部门也要充实加强相应的领导机制和工作机制,主要领导要直接抓,及时拍板解决改革中的重大问题。每个改革事项都要细化任务和分工,有时间表、路线图和责任状。改革涉及到政府自身利益,我们必须狠下心来自己“多割点肉”,让群众“多长点肉”,让大家都富裕起来。 First, strengthen mechanisms and clarify responsibilities. The State Council will continue to focus on streamlining administration, delegating more powers to lower-level governments and society, improving regulation and optimizing services. All regions and departments must also set up their corresponding leadership and working mechanisms where the principal leaders should take charge and make timely decisions on major issues in the reform. All reform items should be based on detailed division of tasks and duties, timetables, roadmaps and written pledges of responsibility. The reform will touch on the government's own interests, and we must have the courage to cut our own benefits to give them to the people, to make our society a more prosperous place.
第二,协调行动、积极探索。简政放权、放管结合、优化服务是一个系统工程,需要统筹安排、整体推进。各地区各部门要牢固树立大局意识和全局观念,不折不扣地贯彻执行党中央、国务院的决策部署,确保令行禁止,不能各吹各的号、各唱各的调。国务院作出的各项改革决定,相关文件和配套措施必须尽快出台,不能久拖不办。尊重基层和群众的首创精神,是我国改革开放的一条基本经验。很多重大改革举措都是先从地方做起,然后推向全国的。在这次简政放权等改革中,给地方留了很大空间。各地要从自身实际出发,根据国务院总的要求和原则,大胆探索创新,在改革中力争上游,同时要注意学习借鉴其他地区的好经验、好做法,互促共进。 Second, coordinate actions and boldly experiment with reforms. To streamline administration, delegate more powers to lower-level government and society, improve regulation and optimize services is a systematic project that needs to be guided by holistic planning and advanced as a whole. All regions and departments must have a firm understanding of the overall picture and implement the decisions to the letter to make sure that all directives are executed without fail and there is consistency in our actions across the country. For any reform decisions taken by the State Council, related documents and supporting measures should be introduced as quickly as possible without procrastination. A basic experience we gained in reform and opening-up is to respect the community and people's creativity. Many major reform measures started at the local or regional level and were then spread nationwide. In our reform such as administrative streamlining and power delegation, ample space is left for the regions. All regions should be bold in their exploration and innovation in light of their own conditions and the requirements and principles laid down by the State Council to take the lead in reform. At the same time, they should learn from other region's good experience and practices.
第三,主动作为、干事创业。我们的公务员队伍总体是好的,是尽职尽责、勤勉实干的。改革开放以来我国取得的巨大成就,是各级干部和群众一起干出来的,今后推动改革发展还得靠干部带着群众一起干。现在,一些干部中确实不同程度存在着懒政怠政、消极敷衍等现象。对此,一方面要加强思想教育,引导公务员积极适应简政放权、放管结合、优化服务的新形势,加快转变观念,不断取得新的工作业绩,富一方百姓、保一方平安。另一方面,要完善激励约束机制,鼓励各级干部愿干事、敢干事、能干成事。现在政府工作人员,特别是基层公务员工作很辛苦,收入也不高,我们既要坚决堵住“偏门”,解决公务人员以权力参与分配、牟取不当利益问题,也要打开“正门”,建立健全正常的工资增长机制,使其收入随着经济发展不断提高,保障他们的合理待遇和应有的尊严。去年,国务院对完善机关事业单位工资和养老保险制度出台了政策,今年6月底前,各地工资调整一定要落实到位。 Third, be proactive and conscientious. Our civil service is professional, responsible and hard-working on the whole. The achievements of reform and opening-up have been the results of the common efforts by government officials at all levels and the people. In the future, we will still rely on our officials to lead the people in advancing reform and development. With regard to nonfeasance and perfunctoriness that do exist among some officials, we need to enhance ideological education to help them adapt to the new situation created by administration streamlining, power delegation, regulation improvement and service optimization, and guide them to make new achievements in promoting prosperity and stability in their own regions. At the same time, we must create stronger incentives and disincentives to encourage officials at all levels to be proactive and conscientious in their work. Government staff, civil servants at the community level in particular, have a very heavy workload and their income is not high. While resolutely barring the "back door" and addressing issues of civil servants making illegal gains with their power, we should also open the "front door" to establish a mechanism for regular salary increases so that civil servants' income will be raised in tandem with economic development and their legitimate welfare and dignity will be ensured. Last year, the State Council introduced policy on improving the salary and pension insurance system for public institutions, and the salary adjustment in all regions must be implemented by the end of June.
第四,加强督查、狠抓落实。各地区各部门要把简政放权、放管结合、优化服务情况纳入绩效考核体系,并完善考评机制。加大督查力度,创新督查方式,并与第三方评估、社会评价结合起来,好经验要及时推广,发现的问题要抓紧解决,对落实不力的要严肃追究责任,确保各项改革措施落到实处。近期,国务院要对部门和地方开展重点督查,坚决打通“放、管、服”举措落实的“最先一公里”和“最后一公里”,推动稳增长、促改革、调结构、惠民生各项政策落地见效。 Fourth, greater oversight and strong implementation. All regions and departments should incorporate administrative streamlining, power delegation, regulation improvement and service optimization into their performance evaluation system and improve the assessment mechanism. There should be greater and innovative ways of oversight and inspection that incorporate third-party and public evaluation. Good experience should be disseminated in a timely way and issues discovered should be solved without delay. Failure to implement will be subject to accountability. All this will help to ensure solid implementation of all reform measures. In the coming months, the State Council will conduct a major inspection of government departments and local regions, to make sure that measures to delegate power, improve regulation and optimize services are implemented throughout from the "first mile" to the "last mile". This will be conducive to strengthening the efficacy of our policies to stabilize growth, advance reform, adjust structure and benefit the people.
第五,依法改革、有序推进。法律是治国之重器,良法是善治之前提。简政放权等改革要在法治轨道上推进,重大改革要于法有据,同时法律法规也要适应改革需要,及时加以调整和完善,使激发释放活力和维护保障秩序有机统一起来。有关部门在放权的同时要提出修法建议。修法立法要严格把关,防止部门利益法制化;严禁法外设权扩权,走出精简膨胀循环的怪圈。要按照国务院要求,抓紧对规范性文件进行全面清理,凡是于法无据、损害群众合法权益的,都要废止或进行修改。 Fifth, promote steady progress of reform in accordance with law. The law is an instrument of paramount importance in national governance and good laws are the precondition for good governance. Reforms such as administrative streamlining and power delegation must be promoted on the basis of the rule of law and major reforms should have solid legal ground. At the same time, laws and regulations should also meet the demand of reforms and be adjusted and improved in a timely way to promote order and vitality at the same time. When delegating powers, relevant departments need to propose accompanying revisions to laws. The revision and legislation process should subject to close scrutiny to prevent the legalization of departmental interests. Extrajudicial extension of powers will be strictly prohibited to prevent new expansion of government powers. All the relevant regulations should be overhauled promptly at the requirement of the State Council and all those that have no legal basis or detrimental to the people's lawful interests are to be abolished or revised.

分享到:

Go to Forum >>0 Comment(s)

No comments.

Add your comments...

  • User Name Required
  • Your Comment
  • Enter the words you see:   
    Racist, abusive and off-topic comments may be removed by the moderator.
Send your storiesGet more from China.org.cnMobileMobileRSSRSSNewsletterNewsletter