鲁炜:网络空间的自由与秩序(全文)
Lu Wei: Liberty and Order in Cyberspace (Full Text)

 
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9月9日,在伦敦举办的第五届中英互联网圆桌会议上,中国国家互联网信息办公室主任鲁炜发表主旨演讲。[新华社 殷钢 摄]

9月9日,在伦敦举办的第五届中英互联网圆桌会议上,中国国家互联网信息办公室主任鲁炜发表主旨演讲。[新华社 殷钢 摄]

网络空间的自由与秩序

Liberty and Order in Cyberspace

——在第五届中英互联网圆桌会议上的主旨演讲

——Keynote speech at the Fifth China-UK Internet Roundtable

(2013年9月9日)

(September 9, 2013)

中国国家互联网信息办公室主任 鲁 炜

Lu Wei
Minister of the State Internet Information Office, China

来到英国这个“www”发明者的故乡,让我不禁想起2012年伦敦奥运会开幕式上动人的一幕:男孩弗兰克和女孩琼恩用精彩的表演,向“www”的发明者、被誉为“互联网之父”的蒂姆·伯纳斯·李先生致敬,感谢他带来的美好网络时代。伯纳斯·李先生则面带微笑坐在“伦敦碗”中央,轻快地敲击电脑键盘,看台上闪现出一排巨大的字符:THIS IS FOR EVERYONE。 Good morning! Since I arrived in the United Kingdom, the birthplace of the World Wide Web, I cannot help recalling a touching moment at the opening ceremony of the 2012 London Olympic Games. Two teenagers, Frankie and June, gave an exciting performance in tribute to the inventor of the World Wide Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, for his gift to the world. Mr. Berners-Lee, sitting in the center of the Olympic Stadium with a smile on his face, tapped on a computer keyboard, and then a row of giant letters flashed around the stadium: "THIS IS FOR EVERYONE".
这句话虽然简短,却说出了互联网与人类的关系。互联网作为20世纪最伟大的发明之一,是全人类共有的财富、共享的资源、共同的家园。互联网让整个世界变成了“地球村”。在这个承载着70亿人的“村庄”里,每一个人都崇尚自由、追求幸福。自由靠什么来实现和维护?英国著名作家萧伯纳曾经说过,“自由意味着责任”。我想同样可以说,“自由意味着秩序”。自由和秩序紧密相连、不可分割,自由是秩序的目的,秩序是自由的保障,离开了秩序的自由是不存在的。哪里没有秩序,那里一定没有自由。我们越追求自由,就越需要秩序。秩序的要义正是“为了每一个人”。 The sentence is short, but points out the relationship between man and the Internet. As one of the greatest inventions of the 20th century, the Internet is a treasure, a resource and a homeland for all mankind. It has turned the world into a "village." In this "village," home to 7 billion people, everyone pursues freedom and happiness. But by what means can we achieve and safeguard liberty? The famous writer George Bernard Shaw once said: "Liberty means responsibility." I think I can also say "Liberty means order." The two are closely linked, as liberty is the aim of order and order is the safeguard of liberty. Liberty cannot exist without order. Where there is no order, there is no liberty. The more we seek liberty, the more we need order. The essence of order is exactly that it is "for everyone."
为了每一个人,我们倡导构建六个方面的秩序: For the sake of everyone: we advocate the establishment of an order, in the following six aspects.
一是倡导互相尊重的秩序。在英国,“绅士”是讲文明、守秩序的典范。在中国,我们有一个与“绅士”相一致的称谓,叫“君子”,君子之道就是“己所不欲、勿施于人”。今天,我们同样也需要“网上君子”和“网上绅士”。在网络空间里,不同肤色、不同民族、不同文化、不同语言的人们,应共同享有参与权、表达权、发展权。虽然各国国情和文化传统不同,但我们应当摒弃偏见、尊重差异、包容开放,特别是要尊重网络主权,不搞网络霸权,不把本国的利益凌驾于他国的利益之上。我们要共同携手,致力于构建一个互相尊重、平等相待的互联网发展秩序。 Firstly, we call for an order of mutual respect. In the United Kingdom, being a "gentleman" means keeping to etiquette and order. In China, we have a parallel title junzi. Being a "junzi" means "not imposing on others what you yourself do not desire." We also need "Internet junzi" and "Internet gentlemen." In cyberspace, people with different skin colors, nationalities, cultures and languages should be equally entitled to participation, free speech and development. Although each country has a different status quo, culture and tradition, we should abandon prejudices, respect differences and be tolerant and open. In particular, we should respect cyber sovereignty, discard hegemony and avoid putting our own country's interests above those of other countries. We should join hands to build an order for the development of the Internet on the basis of mutual respect and equal treatment.
二是倡导信息共享的秩序。互联网的本质属性就是传播信息、共享信息。当今时代,信息引导着资本,影响着决策,决定着交易。一个企业、一个机构,能否通过信息把握市场规律,预测市场前景,发现市场机遇,控制市场风险,是核心竞争力的重要方面。掌握信息的多寡也是一个国家软实力、影响力的重要标志。目前互联网上存在的许多问题,都与信息传播的不客观、不全面、不平衡、不对称密切相关。当今世界,20%的人口占有80%的信息资源,80%的人口只享用不到20%的信息资源,出现二八分立的格局,形成了严重的信息鸿沟。我们应当致力于打破信息壁垒,消除信息鸿沟,让信息在互联网上自由、安全、有序地流动,成为可以共享的财富,更好地造福社会、造福人类。 Secondly, we should encourage the establishment of an order for sharing information. The Internet was designed for disseminating and sharing information. Information channels capital, influences decision-making and determines transactions. One factor undergirding the competitiveness of a company or institution is whether it is able to understand market rules, predict the outlook, discover opportunities, and control market risks through information. The amount of information a country can obtain is an important symbol of its soft power and influence. The Internet is rife with problems, all of which are related to subjectivity, bias, imbalances and asymmetry of information dissemination. Twenty percent of the world’s population controls 80 percent of the information, while the remaining 80 percent of the population has access to less than 20 percent of the information. This has led to a large information gap. We should strive to break down the information barrier and bridge the information gap. We should make information flow on the Internet freely, safely and in an orderly way, and turn it into a treasure for everyone, thus bringing more benefits to society and humanity.
三是倡导传播正能量的秩序。2012年中国十大流行语中,“正能量”一词位居榜首。这个词的流行源于英国心理学家理查德·怀斯曼的《正能量》一书。在当今中国,“正能量”被赋予了更多的内涵,所有积极的、健康的、催人奋进的、给人力量的、充满希望、充满爱心的人和事,都是“正能量”。正能量就是要给人向上的信心和希望,鼓励大家爱国家、爱社会、爱生活,追求一切美好的事物。我们所做的一切,最终都是为了传播正能量。正能量没有国界,如果每个人都通过互联网传播正能量,世界一定会变得更加美好。 Thirdly, we should encourage the establishment of an order for spreading positive energy. The phrase "positive energy" topped the list of China's buzzwords in 2012. The popularity of the phrase is attributed to the book, "Rip It Up", written by the British psychologist Richard Wiseman. The phrase "positive energy" has acquired extra levels of meaning in China today. All positive, sound, inspiring, supportive, hopeful and loving people and things are considered "positive energy." Positive energy is meant to give people confidence and hope, encourage people to love their country, society and life, as well as to pursue nice things. Everything we do is ultimately for the sake of spreading positive energy. Positive energy knows no boundaries. If everyone were to spread positive energy on the Internet, the world would be a much better place.
四是倡导文明和谐的秩序。互联网是时代进步的产物,是现代文明的象征,肩负着弘扬优秀文化、传承文明成果的重要使命。但是也要清醒地看到,网上还存在大量不良信息,特别是那些色情暴力信息对未成年人的身心健康造成了极大威胁。不涤清互联网上的“污泥浊水”,必将影响社会风尚,影响未成年人成长,影响互联网健康发展。英国政府一直致力于对未成年人上网进行保护,避免他们接触有害信息。文明进步是全人类的共同追求,各国都应坚持文明办网的原则,引导网民文明上网,营造健康和谐的网络环境,积极运用互联网这一现代传播工具,弘扬世界优秀文化,推动社会文明进步。 Fourthly, we should establish an Internet order which is civilized and harmonious. The Internet is a product of social development, and a symbol of modern civilization. It carries the important missions of passing on cultural heritage and promoting civilization. But one cannot forget that there is a large amount of harmful information on the Internet, especially pornographic and violent contents, which have severely impaired teenagers' physical and mental health. The "dregs" of the Internet, if not cleaned in time, will affect social trends, child development, and the sound development of the Internet. The British government has long been committed to protecting young people from exposure to harmful information online. Civilization and progress are the common pursuit of mankind. In order to create a healthy and harmonious Internet environment, all countries should cultivate a civilized Internet, and guide their people to use the Internet in a civilized way. We should utilize the Internet to promote cultural diversity, social progress and civilization.
五是倡导维护安全的秩序。互联网是全球共用的信息平台,是你中有我、我中有你的“利益共同体”,面对网络犯罪、黑客攻击、侵犯隐私等全球性挑战,任何国家都不可能在安全问题上“独善其身”。在网络空间里,牺牲他国安全来维护本国安全难以为继,排斥他国诉求去谋取本国利益也不会长久。中国也是黑客攻击的受害国,我们始终坚决反对任何形式的网络攻击行为,希望在网络安全、网络反恐、网络执法、个人隐私保护等方面,与世界各国一道深化交流合作,共同筑牢网络安全底线。 Fifthly, we should establish an Internet order that helps maintain security. The Internet is a worldwide platform for sharing information. It is "a community of common interests". No country is immune to such global challenges as cybercrime, hacking and invasion of privacy. In cyberspace, it is becoming increasingly difficult to uphold security for one's own country by sacrificing that of others. It is also not practical to pursue one's own interests by rejecting others' needs. China is also a victim of hacking. We have always firmly opposed all forms of Internet attacks. We hope to deepen exchanges and cooperation with other countries in online cyber security, anti-terrorism, law enforcement and protection of privacy. Through joint efforts, we can build a strong foundation to safeguard cyber security.
六是倡导依法治理的秩序。良好的秩序,必须靠规则来维护。互联网是自由开放的平台,人人都有麦克风,人人都有话语权,但遵守法律是基本准则,底线不可逾越。去年,英国跳水神童戴利因比赛失利,遭到一网民的死亡威胁,后来这个网民被警方拘捕。近日,英国一男子在网上接连辱骂并威胁女权主义者佩雷斯,扬言对其进行性侵犯,被警方拘捕。对于网络暴力、网络谣言、网络欺诈等互联网上的“毒瘤”,必须强化底线意识,坚持依法治理。我们主张,在联合国框架下,建立多边、民主、透明的国际互联网治理新秩序,让互联网更加规范有序,更好地服务各国发展、服务全人类。 Finally, we should establish an Internet order that features law-based governance. Good order depends on rules. The Internet is a free and open platform. Everyone has the right to speak. However, compliance with the law is the bottom line that no one should violate. Last year, British Olympic diver Tom Daley received a death threat from a Twitter user after missing out on a medal. The user was later arrested. Recently, a British man was arrested for a series of tweets reviling British feminist writer Caroline Criado-Perez and threatening sexual assault. Cyber violence, online rumor and online fraud are the tumors of the Internet. We must stick to the bottom line and exercise governance in accordance with the law. What we advocate is that all stakeholders of the Internet work together to build an international order for Internet governance within the UN framework that is multilateral, democratic and transparent. That will make the Internet more orderly, and better serve the development of all countries and the interests of all mankind.
英国是互联网发达国家,互联网内容管理、技术支撑、行业自律、法律法规等方面比较完善。特别是英国将发展互联网上升到国家战略高度,出台国家网络安全战略,体现了远见卓识。中国互联网起步较晚,但呈现出跨越式发展的强劲势头,有两个鲜明特点:一是网民多,总数近6亿,而且还在快速增长,互联网普及率达到44.1%,微博微信的用户都已经超过了3亿,每天在微博上发布和转发的信息超过2亿条。二是网站多,境内注册网站294万家,在2013年全球前20大网站中,中国的百度、腾迅、阿里巴巴、新浪、搜狐等5家网站上榜,互联网已成为中国很多创业者实现梦想的新舞台。中国政府一贯坚持积极利用、科学发展、依法管理、确保安全的方针,市场大门始终向世界敞开,与世界分享中国互联网繁荣发展的机遇和成果。最近,中国政府还出台了促进信息消费、实施“宽带中国”战略等一系列举措,体现了加快发展互联网的信心和决心。中国互联网的历史不到20年,发展还不够成熟,在服务、管理、建设、运用等很多方面,还要向英国等互联网发达国家多学习、多借鉴。 As a developed country in the Internet world, Britain has advanced experience in Internet content management, technical support, industry self-regulation, and laws and regulations. In particular, the UK has formulated a national strategy for the Internet. Such a decision is wise and far-sighted. China is among the latecomers to the Internet. However, China's Internet is developing rapidly. It has two distinctive features: a huge Internet population and a huge number of websites. With an Internet penetration rate of 44.1 percent, China has almost 600 million Internet users. And the number is still on the rise. The respective numbers of micro bloggers and WeChat users have both exceed 300 million. More than 200 million micro blogs are posted and forwarded each day. The Chinese mainland hosts more than 2,940,000 websites. Five Chinese websites, Baidu.com, QQ.com, Taobao.com, Sina.com.cn and Sohu.com, are listed in the Top 20 Most Popular Websites in the World in 2013. The Internet is a new platform for many Chinese entrepreneurs to realize their dreams. The Chinese government has stuck to its basic Internet policy: active use, scientific development, law-based administration and ensured security. The Chinese Internet market is open to the world. We are willing to share the fruits of the development of China's Internet with the world. Recently, the Chinese government introduced a series of measures, such as promoting information consumption, and implementing the "Broadband China" strategy, all of which demonstrate China's confidence and determination in accelerating Internet development. The Internet in China is less than 20 years old and far from mature. China needs to learn from the UK and other countries with a developed Internet in service provision, management, development, use, and many other aspects.
中国国家主席习近平指出,维护网络空间的和平、安全、开放、合作,符合国际社会共同利益。中英两国互联网的发展既有很多共性,也有很强的互补性,近年来一直保持良好的合作关系。中英互联网圆桌会议至今举办了五届,我的一个突出感受,就是包括中英在内的世界各国,在互联网领域达成的共识越来越多,共享的资源越来越多,共赢的机遇越来越多。中英两国同为世界上具有重要影响的国家,同为快速发展中的互联网大国,在构建国际互联网秩序中扮演着重要的角色,肩负着重要的责任。我们真诚希望在以下五个方面,与英方进一步深化共识、加强合作:

Chinese President Xi Jinping has pointed out that it is in the common interests of the international community to uphold peace, security, openness, and cooperation in cyberspace. There are many things in common between the Internet in China and the Internet in the UK. We have many things to offer each other, and we have carried out good cooperation in recent years. This is the fifth China - UK Internet round-table conference. I feel that all nations across the world, including China and the UK, have more and more consensuses, possess more and enjoy more resources to share and more and more win-win opportunities.

Both as rapid developing Internet giants with great global influence, China and the UK play a significant role in establishing the international Internet order and shoulder important responsibilities. We sincerely hope that China and the UK can deepen our consensus and strengthen cooperation in the following five aspects:

第一,构建常态化交流机制,畅通政府互联网管理部门对话渠道,提高对话层次。 Firstly, we should establish a regular exchange and communication mechanism. We can open up dialogue channels between the Internet management departments of our two countries. We can also strive to incorporate the Internet roundtable conference into the China-UK Strategic Dialogue Framework so as to lift it to a higher level.
第二,构建协同创新机制,鼓励支持两国互联网企业到对方国投资发展,加强关键技术研发和产业合作,促进新技术推广应用。 Secondly, we should establish a new mechanism for collaborative innovation cooperation. We should encourage our Internet companies to invest in each other's countries, promote R&D in key technologies and industry cooperation, and promote the popularization and application of new technologies.
第三,构建研究磋商机制,加强对互联网领域重大理论和现实问题的研究交流,积极探索互联网发展规律。 Thirdly, we should establish a mechanism for research and consultation. We should encourage research exchanges in the major theoretical and practical issues about the Internet and actively explore rules for the development of the Internet.
第四,构建网络安全合作机制,加强对网络攻击、青少年保护等问题的协调处理,共同创造安全可信的网络环境。 Fourthly, we should establish a cooperation mechanism for cyber security, so as to reinforce coordination on the handling of problems including cyber attack and youth protection, and jointly create a reliable safe and credible cyber environment.
第五,构建网络信息共享机制,以更加开放的姿态、更加包容的胸怀,推动网络信息的有序流动和充分共享。 Finally, we should establish a mechanism for Internet information sharing, embracing greater openness and tolerance and promoting the flow of information on the Internet in an orderly and universally accessible way.
女士们,先生们: Ladies and gentlemen:
中国古代思想家孔子认为,一个真正心智成熟的人,可以做到“从心所欲,不逾矩”。在这个美好的互联网时代,我们在享有自由权利的同时,也应当承担建立秩序、维护秩序、捍卫秩序的责任。我相信,充满智慧的中英两国人民,一定能够担负起历史和时代赋予的使命,深化共识,增进共享,实现共赢,积极构建国际互联网新秩序,共同开创互联网更加美好的未来! The ancient Chinese thinker Confucius said that a truly mature person is someone who is able to "follow the dictates of his heart without transgressing what is right. " In this Internet age, we should perform our duties to establish, maintain and defend order, while enjoying what our hearts desire. I am firmly convinced that the wise peoples of China and the UK will live up to this historical mission. By deepening consensus and promoting cooperation, we can achieve mutual benefit, and help build a new international Internet order and a more beautiful future for the Internet!
我祝福互联网带给每一个人快乐、健康和幸福! I sincerely hope that the Internet will bring everybody happiness and health.


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